1Comisaria de Familia, Villa del Rosario. ORCID:0000-0001-5090-4487, firstname.lastname@example.org, 302-3278657,Norte de Santander, Colombia.
2Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Programa Terapia Ocupacional. Grupo de investigación ENTROPIA.Vivi, ORCID:000-0003-3543-8419, Hernandez@mail.udes.edu.co, Universidad de Santander, Cúcuta, Norte de Santander, Colombia.
3Facultad de Artes y Humanidades, Programa académico de Derecho.302-2802288, Jurley.email@example.com, Universidad de Pamplona, Villa del Rosario, Norte de Santander, Colombia.
O.M Navas-Tolosa, V.K Hernández-Vergel, J.K Nova-Prada “Violencia intrafamiliar en el periodo de aislamiento preventivo obligatorio”. Perspectivas, vol. 5, no. 1, 68-78.
Recibido: April 27, 2020; Aprobado: May 03, 2020.
© Peer review is the responsibility of the Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander. This is an article under the license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
This article aims to analyze the rates of domestic violence recorded in the Family Commissioner of a municipality in the Department of Norte de Santander observed in the first forty-one days of compulsory preventive isolation. The data found are analyzed to generate a descriptive analysis that allows to dimension the problem, which is complemented with the review of studies that takes the analysis of aspects associated with the phenomenon in order to improve the understanding of it. It is concluded that during the period of compulsory isolation, a negative influence has been observed in the development of the family dynamics of households in this municipality, reflected in an increase in calls to the lines set up by the State to report this crime.
Keywords:Domestic violence, preventive isolation, phenomenon, family dynamics.
Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los índices de violencia intrafamiliar registrados en la Comisaria de Familia de un municipio del Departamento de Norte de Santander observados en los primeros cuarenta y un días de aislamiento preventivo obligatorio. Se analizan los datos encontrados para generar un análisis descriptivo que permiten dimensionar la problemática, la cual se complementa con la revisión de estudios que lleva el análisis de aspectos asociados al fenómeno con el fin de mejorar el entendimiento del mismo. Se concluye que durante lo corrido del periodo de aislamiento obligatorio se ha observado una influencia negativa en el desarrollo de la dinámica familiar de los hogares de este municipio, viéndose reflejado en un incremento de las llamadas a las líneas habilitadas por el Estado, con el fin de denunciar este delito.
Keywords: Violencia intrafamiliar; aislamiento preventivo; fenómeno; dinámica familiar.
Domestic violence is a social problem that has as its main means the use of force in order to intentionally cause harm or impose a situation in the family nucleus (Sánchez & Ribero, 2004). This kind of abuse has negative consequences at the individual, social and family levels, with the child, female and elderly population being the main victims (Pineda & Otero, 2004; Ayala & Osorio, 2016). Until before 1996, violence within the family in Colombia was considered an isolated phenomenon in society. Gradually, with the passing of time and social movements, this perception has been modified in such a way that a collective conscience has been created around this social problem and today, in our Colombian legislation, a series of laws and decrees have been typified that are aimed at constituting a sanction against the aggressor, since the family is the fundamental nucleus of society.
This article will address the problem of domestic violence linked to the environment of compulsory preventive isolation decreed by the Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19); with the aim of analysing the rates of domestic violence recorded in the Family Police Station of the municipality of Villa del Rosario in the Department of Norte de Santander during the first forty-one days of compulsory preventive isolation decreed by the National Government. The intention of sharing this experience is to analyze how state entities are guarantors of human rights protection and to observe how this problem affected the different sectors (health, psychology and justice) in a common objective.
Domestic violence has triggers and consequences depending on the context in which it occurs. Currently, Colombia is in a transitional period of public health crisis due to the new Coronavirus (Covid-19) so drastic measures have had to be taken for the Colombian population that have altered the social routines of the population (Ramírez-Ortiz, Castro-Quintero, Lerma-Córdoba, Yela-Ceballos, & Escobar-Córdoba, 2020), in this case, the compulsory preventive isolation decreed by the government on March 25, 2020, a measure that led more than 48 million inhabitants to confinement in order to halt the spread of the virus, but triggered a wave of domestic violence throughout the country, with a 73% increase in the Department of Norte de Santander alone compared to 2019.
In order to understand the phenomenon of domestic violence linked to the pandemic unleashed by the Coronavirus (Covid-19), one must understand the importance of the social sphere in society, starting from the meaning of the human being as a social being and that as social interaction is a main foundation in human development.
Albert Bandura Psychologist and writer born in Canada in the early 1950s, begins to investigate the factors that influence social behavior (Bandura, 1987a). Affirming that observation allows people to learn without carrying out any behavior. The main foundation of this social theory is the assumption that people learn through the behavior of others.
For this reason, I propose the theory of social learning with a social-cognitive approach (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961), in which he exposes human behavior is the interaction between the subject and his environment in the different spheres of human life: parents, teachers, friends, public figures, among others (Dolores, y otros, 2018). The human being chooses one of these references that in this theory plays a role of model, later passing to the observation and memorization of the imitated and learned behavior, this thanks to the capacity of the human being to see ourselves in the behaviors of the others.
In child development, the stages of learning, exposed by different authors, raise the behaviors learned by direct and natural observation, in this same sense Bandura (1987b) within the theory of social learning, raises the vicarious learning as one of the main models of learning in child development, technically speaking, the vicarious learning is a model of learning that consists of a form of selfeducation that occurs when we observe what others do.
By bringing to the current scenario of the pandemic that is being presented which has led to the modification of the lifestyle in society and being the social distancing the main preventive measure to stop the spread of the virus, leading to an inner and outer reconfiguration in which the human being must adapt every way of thinking, acting and socializing, and starting from a society that has had the exploration of the outside world and being subjected to certain states, rules or limitations generates that the level of stress and concern increases and therefore people enter a more vulnerable emotional state, these characteristics of the period of isolation lead to the daily environment of the family context, being the emotional factor of a family dynamic (crying, shouting, laughing) and on the other hand the concerns of the economic and labor factor that has been severely affected during the pandemic, have a negative emotional impact on the human psyche causing low tolerance in the human being in front of the family environment which ends up generating domestic violence by not having adequate strategies of development and emotional strengthening of adaptation to the current adversities.
Therefore, the area of psychology has developed coping, promotion and prevention strategies aimed at developing social and family skills to overcome preventive isolation, based on emotional regulation techniques in stress and anger management, whose foundation is relaxation techniques, which are carried out with the breath to self-regulate the levels of stress and anger in the person and finally, psychology works directly with the population in the development and strengthening of resilience which is the innate capacity of the human being to overcome, prepare and adapt positively to adverse situations so that it can be projected in a functionally positive way in the future.
In the conceptual tour that has been carried out of each of the constructs, several investigations have been found that have allowed to extend the vision and to be the theoretical foundation for each of the constructs of this study. The following is the conceptual analysis of each construct.
Among the developed nations, processes are established that sanction any kind of violence and in some cases of discrimination against people, especially women, although in most nations they do not have the practice, which is why the Organización Mundial de la Salud - OMS tells us that sexual violence has been established worldwide, where physical or psychological abuse affects one in three women in the world (Zurita, 2014).
Violence has been defined as any relationship, process or condition by which an individual or social group violates the physical, psychological or social integrity of another person. It is considered to be the exercise of undue force by one subject over another, provided that it is experienced as negative (Organización Panamericana de la Salud - OPS, 1994).
Colombia has developed a high growth of violence, militarization and human rights violations, The statistical curve of registered (and unregistered) cases in Comisarias de Policia at national level or in the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar - ICBF of child victims of domestic violence, as well as, the cultural construction of identities has been affected by widespread violence in the domestic sphere, which overlaps with other political and social expressions of violence. This is why the state, in reviewing the number of these cases in the country is so high - according to reports from the Presidency of the Republic (2000) are 200 cases of domestic violence per day, which is a real social scourge that made us think that strategies are needed to adopt the relevant policies, not only to try to prevent these abuses of human rights in the different spheres, but also for the State to reorient its preventive policies and its criteria for post-traumatic care on scientific studies duly validated for our socio-cultural environment (Amar, Kotliarenko, & Abello, 2003, p. 165), this is why the State has sought, through protection and conciliation mechanisms, to reduce the violation of human rights in the different spheres, avoiding the judicialization and criminalization of conflicts. Therefore, in order to assist the population that has managed to reintegrate into the family, school and social environment and reconcile with itself on a resilient psychological basis.
This is why intra-family rape is one of the most transcendental issues in Colombia, a problem that has effects on all sectors of society/community. Domestic violence is a problem that can lead to multiple consequences in various dimensions of the affected population, such as physical, psychological, emotional, economic and sexual violence, which can cause interference in life and even the inability to carry out different occupations, leading to the need to offer certain resources and guidelines coordinated by an interdisciplinary team that can guide alternatives and solutions to the victims (Flórez, 1995).
Likewise, this article establishes domestic violence against women as a social emergency according to the figures established by the OMS as a result of the compulsory national isolation by Covid-19. It also shows how women victims of this scourge manage to shape a new political subjectivity that is in their own interest and that of their communities.
Often, conflicts and abuses between partners and children are seen, but all this carries certain truths, where it is reflected limitations and restrictions in the participation in the performance of the occupations of affected people, likewise, these difficulties entail that people experience or trigger risks in mental and physical health such as anxiety, eating disorders, depression and post-traumatic stress, this last indicator is more relevant which leaves the isolation because of the Covid-19, since it directly affects interpersonal relationships, especially that of the mother with her children, it is also necessary to bear in mind whether the mother has experienced this same episode in her childhood. By associating whether she has been exposed to a similar childhood or prior to the abuse, these processes can alter the daily lives of the victims, especially the activities of daily life and the context that surrounds them. In addition, domestic violence leaves children with social, behavioral, and emotional problems, and it affects their developmental skills and occupations.
Likewise, from Occupational Therapy, various intervention strategies have been carried out to improve and/or mitigate the occupational performance of people who are victims of domestic violence (mothers and children), which have been aimed at improving performance in occupations, in search of quality of life and subjective wellbeing (Hernández, Prada, & Hernández, 2018), these modalities of intervention are aimed at the instrumental activities of daily life, which are composed of the care that the person has within the home, the upbringing and/or education of children, the work role, as well as, the skill of social interaction. However, there are other occupations of the people which have not been explored and that from the Occupational Therapy can include an intervention model, where the dimensions and components of the victim population are understood, this Model is the one of the Human Occupation of Gary Kielhofner, where it allows a detailed and holistic vision of the victims in the different spheres, in turn, it understands how the women develop in the occupations in their environment when evaluating the roles, volition and habits (Kielhofner, 2008). That is why the human occupation model refers to a variety of instruments that provide a comprehensive assessment of people who are victims of domestic violence, including skills, self-care, communication and interaction skills, and self-assessment of performance. These strategies can be: The Occupational Self-Assessment (OSA), Historical Occupational Performance Interview (OPHI-II), Motor and Processing Skills Assessment (AMPS), Communication and Interaction Skills Assessment (ACIS).
Occupational therapy can diagnose the occupations of victims of domestic violence as the fundamental process of self-identity and the acquisition of new skills that affect a person’s ability to perform and think autonomously about their own decisions in their occupations (American Occupational Therapy Asociation, 2008, p. 62).
In the 1990s, domestic violence was not considered a problem. It was only after a few years that everything that was kept private became public.
According to Nancy Fraser, the division of the public and private sphere can be contrasted with what have been called individual interests and public or general welfare interests and until very recently what happened within the family was not public good (Benhabib & Cornella, 1990, p. 15-16).
The phrase family nucleus was protected, but did not imply involvement in it, as it was part of the private life of its members. A thorough review of our Magna Carta is necessary, as it enshrines a series of mandates that protect the family as the fundamental nucleus of society, including children, youth, the disabled, the elderly and women.
Article 42 of the Political Constitution of Colombia (1991) states that family relations are based on equal rights and duties of the couple and on mutual respect among all members, so that: any form of violence in the family shall be punished in accordance with the law, because it destroys harmony among the members of the household.
It is necessary to emphasize that the family nucleus must be formed by love, solidarity, and affection, as well as dynamics of power, competition, opposition, and hierarchies that when they overflow become violence.
... the modern nuclear family is not a refuge in a heartless world, but a place of self-centred, strategic and instrumental calculation, as well as a place of generally exploitative exchanges of services, work, money and sex, not to mention that it is often a place of coercion and violence (Benhabib & Cornella, 1990, p. 17)
In the Colombian legislation we find a series of laws and decrees that regulate this conduct, which are:
Law 294 (1996) which regulates the procedure of the protection measure.
Decree No. 652 (2001), which regulates the measures to be taken by the competent officials in the application of standards in actions of domestic violence; intervention by the Family Ombudsman and the Public Prosecutor’s Office.
Agreement No. 155 (2005) aims to create and strengthen the capacity to resolve situations of domestic violence autonomously, seeking to eliminate the causes of such violence. It will be developed through the Family Police Stations, within which it is the object of intervention.
Act 1257 (2008), which lays down rules for raising awareness, preventing and punishing forms of violence and discrimination against women. Partially amends Act No. 294 of 1996, which implements article 42 of the Constitution and lays down rules for the prevention, remedy and punishment of domestic violence.
Law 575 (2000), Partially reforms Law 294 of 1996 with regard to the decisions that it imposes Provisional measure of protection, art. 1. Duties of the competent officials for the application of norms foreseen for the action of domestic violence, expert evidence, art. 2 and 3. Conciliation hearing, appearance of parties, art. 8 and 9. Validity, art. 14.
Decree 2774 (2012), establishes the criteria, competent authorities, conditions, financing and procedure for the granting of care measures related to temporary housing, food and transport services defined in Article 19 of Law 1257 of 2008, which provides provisions on awareness, prevention and punishment of forms of violence and discrimination against women, as well as in its Regulatory Decrees 4796 and 4799 of 2011. The conditions for access to these measures are: (a) the effect on the physical and/or mental health of the woman victim; (b) the special risk situation in which the victim finds herself.
Law 1542 (2012), reforms article 74 of Law 906 of 2004, the Code of Criminal Procedure, in that it guarantees the protection and diligence of the authorities in the investigation of alleged crimes of violence against women and eliminates the prosecution and dismissal of the crimes of domestic violence and failure to provide food, as defined in articles 229 and 233 of the Criminal Code.
Decree 1069 (2015), which is issued by the Single Regulatory Decree of the Justice and Law Sector, compiles the regulatory standards of the Justice and Law Sector; as well as the provisions on domestic violence. It sets out the technical guidelines on the powers, procedures and actions relating to the functions of family police stations and other administrative authorities with jurisdictional functions in relation to gender-based violence, which will be defined by the Ministry of Justice and the Law.
In order to guarantee effective compliance with the fundamental rights enshrined in our Constitution, entities such as the ICBF, the National Police and the Family Police stations are responsible for protecting the victims of this type of physical and psychological abuse.
In this investigative process, a quantitative approach was adopted at the descriptive and correlational level, because the aim is to characterize the behavior of the incidents reported to the Family Commissioner of a municipality in the San José de Cúcuta metropolitan area, in order to determine whether compulsory preventive isolation is influencing the generation of violent incidents within the home (Arias, 2012).
The design of the investigation, according to Arias (2012), follows the characteristics of a documentary investigation process, since it is based on the search, analysis and interpretation of secondary data, which, in this case, correspond to the analysis of the data recorded in the format carried out by the police station, which are printed on monthly forms.
As far as the population is concerned, it corresponds to all the complaints registered with the Family Commissioner of the municipality, from the very moment it was set up. For the selection of the sample, non-probabilistic sampling is used under the convenience sampling technique, given that the year 2019 and the first four months of the year 2020 have been selected as the observation window, with a cutoff date of April 30, the date on which the 41 days of the obligatory preventive isolation decreed by the Presidency of the Republic are fulfilled in order to mitigate the number of infections by the Covid-19.
From the information recorded in the Family Commissioner’s formats, a template was designed that extracts the following variables: year; month and fortnight of the month; sex, age and schooling level of the victim; sex, age and schooling level of the perpetrator; relationship of the perpetrator to the victim; and type of violence (physical, psychological and/or verbal).
The data are recorded in an Excel file that is later exported to SPSS v22, to be analyzed by various descriptive statistics.
From the processing of the collected data, 247 complaints were registered from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. Of this number of complaints, 64% (159 cases) correspond to 2019 and the remaining percentage to the current year 2020 (88 cases). If this upward trend in complaints continues, it is expected that by 31 December this year there will be a total of 264 complaints, representing a 66 per cent increase over the previous year.
Analyzing in detail what happened during the year 2019, it could be identified that in the first semester 53% of the complaints were presented, with greater concentration in the months of February and May.
As for the victims, 79% were female, 11% were children (under 12 years), 7% were adolescents (12-17 years), 59% were adults (18-49 years) and the remaining 23% were older adults (50 years or more); with regard to schooling levels, 3% had some preschool education, 16% primary education, 48% had secondary and/or secondary technical education but had not graduated from high school, 33% had graduated from high school and 22% had continued with technical studies, while the remaining 11% were university professionals.
With respect to the perpetrator, it is noted that in 75% of the cases reported to the Family Commissioner, the perpetrators of domestic violence were men, with a predominance of 18 - 49 year old (79% of the cases), followed at a distance (17%) by older adults aged 50 or over. With regard to the maximum level of schooling achieved, 57% graduated from high school, 26% have technical training, 12% are university professionals and the remaining percentage (5%) reached primary school level.
To conclude the analysis of the violent acts reported to the Family Commissioner during the year 2019, it could be determined that in 49% of the cases, the victim’s partner was the perpetrator, followed by the former partner in 13% of the cases, followed by 13% of the cases of the former partner, then children account for 11% of the complaints; while 16% of the cases reported come from one of the two parents; the remaining percentage is distributed to a lesser extent among siblings, nephews, in-laws or uncle.
With regard to the type of violent action committed by the perpetrator, it could be determined that 98% of the cases observed two types of violent actions (verbal, psychological or physical), with verbal aggression being the most recurrent with 96%, followed by psychological aggression with 54% and physical aggression with 46% of the cases. Two per cent of the complaints correspond to physical aggression as the only victimizing act.
What happened in the first four months of 2020 (88 cases reported) is analyzed below, following the same presentation dynamics adopted for the previous year. An analysis of the number of cases reported during the year shows that each month the number of cases increased (11 in January, 15 in February), with an increase of 73% in March and 167% in April compared to the number of reports in February.
It was identified that 84% of the victims have been women and the rest men. With regard to age, it was determined that 65% are adults (18-49 years), followed by 23% of older adults (50 years or more), while the remaining percentage corresponds to minors between the ages of 6 and 17. The remaining percentage corresponds to minors between the ages of 6 and 17. 49% are studying at some level of basic secondary or secondary technical education, while 26% are studying at the primary level, 15% have completed some process of technical labour training and 10% have university professional studies..
Regarding the characteristics of the perpetrator during the cases presented in the year 2020. It was determined that in 78% of the cases this role was assumed by men, while in the remaining 22%, it is women who generate violence within the home. Ninety-eight per cent of the perpetrators are adults, with 81% of them between the ages of 18 and 49, while the remaining 17% are 50 or older. The remaining 2% are victimizers who are 17 years old and their situation is linked to the consumption of psychoactive substances.
With regard to the offender’s academic preparation, it was determined that 59% of them have completed various degrees of secondary education, followed by those who have completed primary school or have completed technical studies, each with 16%. Finally, 9% have professional university studies.
Finally, it was determined that the main agent generating domestic violence is the current partner, with 58% of cases, followed by the ex-partner with 15%, and the remaining percentage is contributed by parents, siblings, children, son or daughterin-law, nephews or grandparents. To close the characterization of the year 2020, it was possible to identify the violent action that led to the complaint in the Family Commissioner, in 91% of cases was caused by the presence of two violent actions as a combination of verbal, physical or psychological. Physical attacks are present in 61% of cases, verbal and psychological attacks in 65% of cases, each.
3.3. Comparison 2019-2020 Table I shows a comparison by year of the violent actions reported. It can be seen that in the year 2020 the number of reports month by month was growing, with the greatest increase observed in the months of March and April, the period of time when compulsory isolation began.
When comparing the behavior in the months of observation, there is a significant increase of at least 189% in March and 300% in April 2020, when analyzing the same period in both years.With
regard to the gender of the victim, Table II shows an increase in the percentage of women affected from
Table IV identifies the link or relationship between the perpetrator and the victim for each year observed. From the information in the table, it can be concluded that the main generators of domestic violence are the current partners, the ex-partner or the parents in case of being a minor. For years, it can be observed that the year 2020 ratifies that couples and ex-couples are the ones who generate more traumatic events inside homes.
Finally, when comparing the percentage of violent events reported, it was observed that in 2019 verbal and psychological aggression predominated, followed by physical and verbal aggression; while in the year 2020, physical aggression accompanied by verbal and psychological aggression was accentuated.
Finally, when comparing the percentage of violent events reported, it was observed that in 2019 verbal and psychological aggression predominated, followed by physical and verbal aggression; while in the year 2020, physical aggression accompanied by verbal and psychological aggression was accentuated.
One of the significant consequences of the compulsory isolation due to the health emergency resulting from Covid-19 is the increase in March of 189% and in April of 300% in the number of complaints at the Family Commissioner of the Municipality of Villa del Rosario, about events associated with domestic violence, this is due to various factors associated with confinement such as anxiety, stress, fear of losing one’s job, increased consumption of alcoholic beverages or narcotic substances, carrying out household and care work as a traditionally female duty, among others (Álvarez- González, 2016), The normal conflicts that occur within the framework of coexistence end up being resolved through violence in contexts where this has never occurred before. Thus, isolation becomes a space of risk of victimization in places where such risk did not exist.
Confinement increases the level of stress and depression in the home that ends up triggering physical and verbal aggression, among all members of the household, but with a greater incidence towards women in the home. This fact can be affirmed with the review of the different national media in which they state that the reports of the denunciations of cases of domestic violence have increased due to the obligatory isolation. For example, according to figures shared by the Villa del Rosario Family Commissioner, it has received more than 88 complaints of domestic violence in the first 15 days of isolation.
Family and/or domestic violence leads to a restriction in the occupational participation of the victims, altering the capacity to adapt to the different changes in the context, with possible psychological and physical damage, as well as limiting their satisfactory development. That is why Occupational Therapies promote full satisfaction in the participation of occupations, without leaving aside the characteristics and patterns of execution of the victims, understood as roles, routines, habits and rituals, as well as in the restoration of individual skills and capacities. Focused specifically on restoration in the occupations present in daily life established in the activities of daily life and instrumental of daily life, education, work, rest and sleep, leisure / free time, play and social participation, in order to establish the skills necessary for self-control of their own life, in search of quality of life and better welfare.
For this reason, development plans issued by municipal entities must be reviewed in order to implement programs and mitigate domestic violence, in other cases how to overcome the causes it leaves in the victims. These programs are aimed at facilitating the processes of acquiring skills in occupations, especially in play, in preparation for social inclusion, the use of strategies to improve higher processes such as attention, memory and concentration, during the participation of occupations, as well as in the organization of habits and routines, approaching new work skills and coping strategies.
The Family Commissioner, together with the interdisciplinary team, is responsible for preventing, guaranteeing, restoring and repairing the rights of children, adolescents and other family members in circumstances of abuse, threat or violation of rights arising in the context of domestic violence.
Thus, in the Family Commissioner of Villa del Rosario this contingency situation has led to a significant increase in cases of domestic violence, in which children, adolescents and women have been the most affected, despite the fact that the family is the protective environment and the fundamental nucleus for protection, the same has violated the rights since in the familiar surroundings the violent facts are presented, Therefore, it can be said that the Family Commissioner of Villa del Rosario intervenes and takes urgent preventive measures to mitigate the situation, starting with the verification of the rights of women, children and adolescents or any affected family unit, and takes the necessary administrative measures depending on the case (Law 1257, 2008) where the victim is guaranteed integrity and non-repetition of the acts of violence, in the situation of mistreatment or presumed abuse related to risks to integrity, processes of restoration of rights are initiated where, if necessary, protection is provided to the victim or preventive measures such as warnings are taken to prevent violent situations from recurring.
The Family Commissioner has been handling virtual prevention 24 hours a day, seven days a week without interruption (Decree 460, 2020), taking into account that the family requires this urgent attention and for the Family Commissioner it is a priority to guarantee the rights or to mitigate the actions that threaten the family integrity giving priority attention establishing immediate contact with the victim.
As a protective factor, administrative conciliation procedures have been increased in order to guarantee a quality of life, a healthy environment, and the right to have a family for the children and adolescents of the municipality in order to generate protective environments for all families where, with the support of professionals such as psychologists, social workers and in the area of law, children and adolescents are guaranteed to have a family, a protective environment, quality of life and a healthy environment, thus guaranteeing their rights.
It is found that the IIV has increased in considerable numbers in the times of the Covid-19, due to the confinement that we live daily, which generate constant discussions in the families, triggering physical and psychological abuse.
This problem led the municipal and departmental governments to integrate an interdisciplinary working group in order to strengthen the access channels, in case the VIF is presented, recognizing that women are mainly responsible for household chores and care, which means that during quarantine the work has considerably doubled, as they bring together various activities such as caring for the home, cleaning, preparing food, caring for children, the elderly or sick people and in some cases working from home.
Because of this forty it was necessary to change the routines, which should be done as best as possible to avoid overburdening and violence (physical, psychological and sexual) by couples or men of the family.
Finally, denouncing this type of aggression against women and children is a duty of all
We are especially grateful to the Family Commissariat of Villa del Rosario for providing us with the data that generated this reflection.
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