Revista Científica Profundidad Construyendo Futuro
ISSN: 2422-2518 (En línea)
Vol. 6. Mes Enero -Junio
Recibido: 20 de octubre de 2016 Aceptado: 10 de diciembre de 2016
El clima organizacional es la sensación, personalidad o carácter del entorno de una organización, algo que distingue a una empresa de otra, siendo el conjunto de características de una organización que afecta el entorno laboral e influye en el comportamiento de las personas. (Sánchez, 2006, p.42).
La investigación comenzó mediante la recopilación de la información necesaria proporcionada por las instrucciones y la medición del entorno de trabajo de los empleados dentro de la organización "COOHILADOS Cooperativa de FONCE" desde principios de año hasta mediados de 2017. Involucró el análisis del clima organizacional para identificar las áreas que representan fortalezas y oportunidades (puntos débiles o puntos críticos) para facilitar la toma de decisiones de la alta dirección y al mismo tiempo permitirá que la empresa tenga éxitoy se mantenga como una cooperativa competitiva en el sector respectivo. El resultado contribuye al avance sociocultural de la región
Palabras clave: Cambio Organizacional, Cultura Organizacional, Clima Organizacional, Desarrollo Organizacional, Intervención.
Organisationalclimate is the sensation, personality or character of the environment of an organization, something that distinguishes one company from another, being the set of characteristics of an organization that affects the work environment and influences the behavior of people. (Sánchez, 2006, p.42).
The investigation began by collecting necessary information provided by the instruction and measurement of working environment of the employees within the organisation ‘ COOHILADOS Cooperativa of FONCE’ from the beginning of the year until mid-2017. It involved analysis of the Organizational Climate to identify the areas that represent strengths and opportunities (Weak Points or Critical Points) in order to facilitate the decision making of top management and at the same time will allow the company to be successful and maintain itself as a competitive cooperative in respective sector. Result contributes to the socio-cultural advancement of the region.
Key words: Organizational Change, Organizational Culture, Organizational Climate, Organizational Development, Intervention
Coohilados del fonce ltda: It is a cooperative located in the municipality of San gil. It was raised at the end of the year 1940, thanks to the boom of demand of fiquefiber in San Gil which gave birth to a small Company called Consorcio Industrial Santander supported by the Instituto de Fomento Industrial IFI. In 1997, there was a crisis in fique fiber economy and when everyone thought that it would be the end of a compay called Hilanderías del Fonce S.A. However, a group of people that involved workers and operators decided to recover the enterprise and subsequently, joined forces to solve the economic situation and after this movement the enterprise reborn to be called as Cooperativa Multiactiva de Hilados del fonce whose main purpose was to contribute to improvement of economic, social and cultural level of the families involved in this business and community, in general.
107 Entrepreneurs followed this path and year by year achieved a better position and now they are recognized as the Enterprise contributing highly with employment opportunities in the region (300 families are benefited directly and 70.000 families live due to the fique growed) -Producer of packaging,twine, fabrics, biomantas and fique ropes, 100% biodegradable natural fiber. According to the Manager of Coohilados, the packaging of coffee reduced the demand for this product that is exported in its large amount of natural fiber packaging helping to notcondense moisture, quality and particular flavor.
A guild that worked in collaboration with farmers to provide training, advice and proper monitoring to the process of cultural, economic and social growth. The partnership with University Santo Tomas de Bucaramanga and Procolombia is leading them to explore new markets such as in Venezuela, Ecuador and Mexico.Coohilados del Fonce has an excellent team of people with cooperative values, people who fight for evolution of their company, people with projections, those who understand and prioritize market needs.Currently, Cooperative Coohilados del Fonce does not have a clear strategy in its Organizational Climate to improve the work environment, in order to start a process of improvement within (employees) and thus, build a culture oriented towards achievement, the co-existence, development and excellence.
Having said the above, the Manager will be informed of the current work environment to project the organization towards leadership in the sector, this is the urgency of measuring the Organizational Climate with the aim of having an adequate level of work in team and cooperation, a high level of identification with the Company so that the work is an investment in the structure.The instructional or measuring survey of the work climate is focused on the integral development to find a measuring parameter of "satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work" (Sánchez, 2006, p.42), made at the administrative and operative levels of the cooperative Coohilados del Fonce.The company, when applying the work climate measurement guide, identifies the organizational and personal needs to generate from there an action plan that projects the organization towards leadership in the sector, increasing productivity and improving the organizational environment, with the spirit of undertaking the path towards a solid organizational culture that is distinguished by excellence and unparalleled service.2. THEORETICAL DESCRIPTIONS AND STATE OF THE ART
The Organizational Climate is the feeling, personality or character of the environment of an organization, something that distinguishes one company from another, being the set of characteristics of an organization that affect the work environment and influences the behavior of people. (Sánchez, 2006, p 42).The theoretical concept of organizations from the perspective of human relations, emphasizes the importance of man in the role of his work, for his participation in a social system. This man -organization relationship is not only projected at the level of aspects defined by the formal structure in the system of functions and positions of the individual, but "each occupant of a position has certain patterns in his relationship with other people within the organization". It could be said that patterns of behavior of the individuals in the organization (personality system), are the result of the set of values, norms and guidelines given in the organizational structure, (cultural system) as well as the conditions established by the interaction process (social system). In this way the cultural, social and personality systems at the organization level are essential analytical elements in the Organizational Climate concept, since there is clearly a direct relationship between the formal structureof the organization and the individual that participates in it. The organization identifies a set of elements in its structure that individuals project in their own styles and consequently, give rise to processes that are reflected in their organizationalbehavior. The Organizational Climate is variable in the corporate culture because it influences the behavior of the individual and is a determining factor of the collective consciousness. (Méndez, 1982, p.15). The Organizational Climate, emotional intelligence and knowledge capital form a braid, interrelating with each other, from that mixture originates, the business image. (Patarroyo, 2001, p.54).
Organizational Climate includes elements that characterize the formal and informal organization that when perceived by an individual determines their behavior and attitude reflected by their level of motivation. Thus, its measurement and analysis must be oriented to the degree of perception that the individual has about situations, beliefs and attitudes towardsfacts, people and events that characterize the organization through instruments that include objective variables, cooperation, interpersonal relationships, leadership, decision making, control and motivation to measure the Organizational Climate. (Méndez,1982, p.26)
When analyzing concepts presented on Organizational Climate by different authors, common elements can be found in their definition as outlined below:
Description of characteristics of the organization which differentiates it from others.
It is the result of manners and behaviors perceived by an individual.
It includes formal and informal aspects of the informal organization that guides the behavior of an individual and in turn creates subjective perceptions about the work environment.
Produceattitudes and behaviors that indicate the degree of motivation of the individual. (Méndez, 1982, p.28).
Within the properties of the labor climate are among others: Wages and compensations, rewards and recognition, organizational clarity, solidarity, group spirit, consideration and support, productivity, distancing or rapprochement between levels, disinterest in tasks (routinization), burden of work, friendship relationships, trust, structures, rules, rules, paperwork, rigidity, challenge or acceptance of risks, tolerance and conflict management, organizational identity, loyalty, concern for employees, autonomy and responsibility, job security, possibility of promotion and work environment. (Sánchez, 2006, p 42)
2.1 Organizational Climate: The concept of Organizational Climate has important and diverse characteristics, among which we can highlight the following.
The Climate refers to the characteristics of the Organization's environment in which the members of the Organization perform, these characteristicscan be external or internal: these characteristics are perceived directly or indirectly by the members who work in that environment, the latter determines the Organizational Climate, since each member has a different perception of the environment in whichit operates.
The Organizational Climate is a temporary change in the attitudes of people that can be due to several reasons: final days of the annual closing, process of reduction of personnel, general increase of salaries, etc. For example, when motivation increases there is an increase in the Organizational Climate, since there is a desire to work, and when motivation decreases it also decreases, either due to frustration or for some reason that made it impossible to satisfy the need: These characteristics of the organization are relatively permanent over time, they differ from one organization to another and from one section to another within the same company.
The test is structured through eleven factors that are considered to be those that most influence the behavior of employees in a company. These factors are made up of several indicators that make knowledge of the work environment more accurate.
2.2 Eleven factors of Bautista (1998). In order to understand results of the survey, it is important to know what each of the factors refer to:
2.2.1 Attitude towards colleagues. Measures the quality of relationship of friendship and trust between colleagues; solidarity, teamwork and the impact it has on performance. It also identifies the degree of respect among public and private employee exercised by their work environment, aspects that affect the presence of interpersonal conflicts.
2.2.2 Intrinsic aspects. Evaluate aspects related to the realization of the work in what has to do with suggesting ideas to improve the quality and work procedures, autonomy and decision making. The worker will measure at this point the possibilities that the company offers him to take off his creativity and capacities to improve his work environment and achieve greater efficiency.
2.2.3 Working conditions. Everything related to the tools of work, space, lighting and physical security of workers that allow the achievement of greater efficiency and productivity.
2.2.4 Equity. It has to do with the equality that workers perceivein terms of being heard, the way in which their problems are solved and the treatment they receive from the company.
2.2.5 Information. Through this variable, the general management of communications, the induction and the training methods used, their quality and the impact they have on the performance and achievement of the goals are evaluated. It also indicates the preparation that a company performs for new employees, in order to have an adequate work adaptation.
2.2.6 Possibility of progress. You canfind promotions, transfers or promotions in this position, taking into account capacity of the workers. Work is also measured as an inspiring source of enriching lives and the possibility of fulfilling needs of your life and career plan with elements thata company offers you.
2.2.7 Wages. It refers to salaries, benefits and compensations. It measures an employee's feeling that their salary is satisfactory to meet their basic needs.
2.2.8 Sense of belonging. It is the organizational identity and loyalty. It measures the degree to which employees feel the company as their own and their connection to it is a source of pride for him and his family.
2.2.9 Security in employment. This is a feeling of freedom to act, to express opinion, to suggest ideas and to allow the worker to assume challenges and risks that enrich the work, as well as to measure the tranquility generated by the feeling that company counts on them as a valuable element in achieving goals.
2.2.10 Services. These are the aspects thatraise the spirit and stimulate the permanence of employees in the company and go beyond the economic improvement, and welfare of workers in terms of loans, incentives, assistance and other needs.
2.2.11 Supervision. It refers to the boss -subaltern relationship, not only at the work level but also at the personal level. Distance and / or approach between levels. It allows to identify the degree of understanding that exists to obtain outstanding results in the performance of tasks. (Sánchez, 2006, p.44).
Another author who defines these variables is Likert R. (1967), his Organizational Climate theory states that the behavior assumed by subordinates directly depends on the administrative behavior and the organizational conditions they perceive, therefore, it is affirmed that the reaction will be determined by perception.3. METHODOLOGY
3.1 MIXED APPROACH
The focus of this research is quantitative, since it is based on collection and analysis of numerical data.
3.2 TYPE DESCRIPTIVE -CORRELACIONAL
By the scope of results are an applied investigation of a descriptive -correlational type that will describe characteristics of the system, it describes the intervening variables and the relation between them, without determining level of causality.
3.3 Eleven factors taken from Bautista (1998) were selected: (Working conditions, services, job security, attitude towards colleagues, supervision, information, equity, sense of belonging, intrinsic aspects, possibilities to progress and higher wages).
3.4 DESIGN OFTHE INVESTIGATION OR TYPIFICATION
The design is transversal and describes the situation for a defined period year 2017.
3.5 POPULATION AND SAMPLEUnit of study: Cooperativa COOHILADOS DEL FONCE of San Gil.
The population and the sample of the project "MEASUREMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE OF THE COOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE OF THE FONCE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF SAN GIL." is not probabilistic or intentional.
3.5.1 Universe: The company COOHILADOS has 98 fixed and 112 temporary employees for a total of 210, between administrative and operational.
3.5.2 The calculation of the sample size.
A very extended formula that guides the calculation of the sample size for global data is the following:
The profile of the Organizational Climate of Coohilados del Fonce is where we can determine strengths and aspects to improve. The graph has the advantage that allows us to visualize where we should direct the actions and strategies of change.
Figure 1. It indicates what are the strong aspects and for improving. We can say that it shows in more detail the scores obtained.
Figura 1: Profile of the Organizational Climate of Coohilados del Fonce.
Identification of critical points
The critical points of the Organizational Climate of Coohilados del Fonce are summarized in:
1. WORKING CONDITIONS. P / 62 (3.21)
2. SERVICES. P / 53 (2.79)
3. SECURITY IN EMPLOYMENT. P / 56 (3.13) P / 23 (3.0)
3. ATTITUDE TOWARDS COMPANIONS. P / 15 (2.96)
4. SUPERVISION. P / 46 (2.45)
5. INFORMATION. P / 37 (3.24)
6. EQUITY. P / 58 (2.85)
7. SENSE OF BELONGING P / 61 (2.52)
8. INTRINSIC ASPECTS. P / 45 (2.81)P / 59 (2.81)
9. POSSIBILITIES OF PROGRESS. P / 55 (3.45)
10. WAGES. P / 42 (3.42)5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION.
For example any administrative process, the analysis of the Organizational Climate that is presented below arises as a result of a package of aspects on which we wantto investigate, and which are directly related to the work environment, they are:
Working conditions, services provided, job security, attitude towards colleagues, supervision, information, equity, sense of belonging, some intrinsic characteristics, the possibilities of progress and satisfaction with respect to wages.
5.1 DIAGNOSIS (STRENGTHS AND POINTS TO IMPROVE)
According to the diagnosis of Organizational Climate of Coohilados del Fonce at time of process, it presents as strength, the Intrinsic aspects, with a percentage of 1.7, and as an area of opportunity (or to improve), the Salaries, with a score of 2.97.
The image of the company in the family of workers is very good. The company is concerned about keeping staff informed about the new methods to be carried out. In the Cooperativa employees feel proud to do a good job. The company is concerned that the employee is carefully scheduled. In Coohilados you can suggest ideas to improve the quality and procedures at work.
POINT FOR IMPROVEMENTAs an OPPORTUNITISTIC area:
The wages of the workers are perceived as improper respects to other companies and there is no good perception regarding the salary recognition that the company makes for skills, to the worker.
Factors: Strengths and Points to improve.
5.1.1 WORKING CONDITIONS:
Workers have the necessary elements, good lighting, work tools, space and physical security in the workplace.
POINT TO IMPROVE
The company does not take precautions for the safetyof workers. Since 74.4% of the respondents state that never in the Cooperative or at times do they take precautions for the safety of workers, only 7.5% declared that always.
The workers are happy with the social benefits granted by the company. The Cooperative cares about the welfare of the workers and the loan policies have fulfilled their objective.
POINT TO IMPROVE
Coohilados does not give extra aids (incentives, commissions) outside of what is strictly required by the work contract.
5.1.3 SECURITY IN EMPLOYMENT:
In the Cooperative when a mistake is made, it is taught to correct it and it is easy to make claims.
POINT TO IMPROVE
The company dismisses the workers lightly because 62.4% of the respondents state that sometimes the cooperative dismisses the workers promptly, 29.3% declare that never. In Coohilados it often happens that for fear of asking, it is decided slowly and mistakenly. Penalties for minor errors are common and when you make a mistake you have to be afraid.
5.1.4 ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE COMPANIONS:
In general Coohilados workers are good people and employees do not get into the personal lives of others.
POINT TO IMPROVE
Fights and enmities among coworkers are frequent. 55.7% of respondents say that sometimes and frequently there are fights and enmities among coworkers, 32.3% reveals that fights and enmities are never common.
The employees know well the boss of their work area, in Coohilados when there is a problem there is confidence to ask the boss for advice, the employees when they need something, the boss is willing to help them and it is perceived that he worries because the workers understand well his labors.
In the Cooperative the bosses are seen as serious people who fulfill the acquired commitments, the workers recognize that the bosses have an excellent will to collaborate in what they need and perceive their directors as cordial companions at work.
In Coohilados employees frequently communicate with their boss and in each area they worry that the work is working well.
POINT TO IMPROVE
In the Cooperative the bosses do not worry because they contribute ideas that improve the quality of work.
In Coohiladospeople who are linked receive a good training to carry out their work, they worry about keeping the staff informed about the new methods of performing the work and the employees state that the company knows the news of interest to the staff.
POINT TO IMPROVE
The employees surveyed stated that when a special problem arises, it is not known who should solve it and often jobs are started that we do not know why they are done.
Coohiladosemployees recognize a good treatment by the Cooperative, they say that the observations made by their bosses about the work are fair andWhen a worker complains about something, the company is concerned about solving the problem.
POINT TO IMPROVE
In the Cooperative the workers see with concern that the promises made to them are not fulfilled.
5.1.8 SENSE OF BELONGING:
In Coohilados in the employees there is a high sense of belonging and pride in working for the Cooperative, the image of the company in the family of the workers is very good, the employees feel greater satisfaction of working for Coohilados, comparatively with the previous works and they perceive that the social environment of the company is pleasant.
POINT TO IMPROVE
Workers do not feel support in the company when they have a family problem.
5.1.9 INTRINSIC ASPECTS:
The image of the company in the family of workers is very good. The company is concerned about keeping staff informed about the new methods to be carried out. In the Cooperative the employees feel proud to do a good job. The company is concerned that the employee is carefully scheduled. In Coohilados you can suggest ideas to improve the quality and procedures at work.
POINT TO IMPROVE
Generally ideas aboutthe improvement of work are not executed, there is little freedom of action for the realization of work and the Cooperative does not allow its employees to make decisions on how to do the work.
5.1.10 POSSIBILITIES OF PROGRESS:
The assignment of works is a good source of experience.
POINT TO IMPROVE
The workers perceive that it is not possible to progress in the company without having sponsors, there is a bad perception of opportunities for promotion, when the person is able to climb in a new position, generally they are not given recognition for the good performance in the work of their employees. employees and there is no opportunity in the recognition of results as a factor to climb positions in the company.
Salaries are perceived as adequate.
POINT TO IMPROVE
The wages of the workers are improper respects to other companies and there is no good perception regarding the salary recognition that the Cooperative does for skills, to the worker.
In general, the Organizational Climate of Coohilados del Fonce shows a good result, which reflects a good managerial work in organizational development.
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