Social-family development: integral culture for the formation of the children of the zero program always in the municipality of Pamplona
Desarrollo socio-familiar: cultura integral para la formación de los hijos del programa de cero a siempre del municipio de Pamplona
Fredy Andrés Cruz - Vega1, Luz Eliana Figueroa - Granados2
1 Grupo de investigación: Pedagógica, Universidad de Pamplona, Colombia,
2 Grupo de investigación: Pedagógica, Universidad de Pamplona, Colombia,
Cruz - Vega, F. A., & Figueroa - Granados, L. E. (2019). Social-family development: integral culture for the formation of the children of the zero program always in the municipality of Pamplona. Revista Científica Profundidad Construyendo Futuro, 11(11), 31–43.
La investigación posibilita reconocer los juicios de los usuarios que están inscritos al programa de cero a siempre modalidad familiar y a su vez establecer la relación que ellos le dan al programa en la formación de sus hijos, El uso de la investigación cualitativa para esta propuesta contribuye o establece la relación de describir y dar puntos de vista a problemáticas del contexto social educativo y vivencial, el objetivo primordial fue Determinar el grado de aprovechamiento por parte de los usuarios del programa de cero a siempre modalidad familiar, del municipio de pamplona. Se puede decir que la aplicación de esta investigación contribuye en parte a diagnosticar desde puntos de vista personales el impacto generado por el programa en la formación de los menores, evidenciando en ella las posturas teóricas, políticas y reales para así concientizarlos de la importancia de la formación de los niños/as. Los instrumentos empleados a las familias de ciertas zonas rurales quienes son los objetos de estudio fueron entrevistas semi estructuradas; validadas por expertos del área, lograron arrojar información clave para el análisis y triangulación Gracias a las unidades de análisis y a las categorías establecidas en la entrevista, se logró enfocar y dar solución a los objetivos planteados, demostrando la percepción que los beneficiarios del programa de cero a siempre tienen con relación al funcionamiento en las zonas rurales de Pamplona, Con la información obtenida es claro establecer la conformidad del funcionamiento del programa en cuanto al papel de atención a las familias, la formación de los menores y la integración de la sociedad es así como el programa se está llevando de marea adecuada.
Palabras claves: Formación integral, Vínculo, Familia, Estrategia De Cero A Siempre, Concepciones.
The research makes it possible to recognize the judgments of the users who are enrolled in the zero to always family modality and, in turn, establish the relationship they give to the program in the training of their children. The use of qualitative research for this proposal contributes or it establishes the relationship of describing and giving points of view to problems of the social educational and experiential context, the primary objective was to determine the degree of use by users of the program from zero to always family modality, in the municipality of Pamplona. It can be said that the application of this research contributes in part to diagnosing from a personal point of view the impact generated by the program in the training of minors, evidencing in it the theoretical, political and real positions in order to make them aware of the importance of training of children. The instruments used for families in certain rural areas who are the objects of study were semi-structured interviews; validated by experts from the area, they managed to produce key information for the analysis and triangulation. Thanks to the analysis units and the categories established in the interview, it was possible to focus and provide solutions to the objectives set, demonstrating the perception that the beneficiaries of the program of zero They always have in relation to the operation in rural areas of Pamplona. With the information obtained it is clear to establish the conformity of the operation of the program in terms of the role of care for families, the training of minors and the integration of society is thus how the show is getting on the right tide.
Fredy Andrés Cruz Vega, Luz Eliana Figueroa Granados
The family at present times faces a changing world, tinged by a global crisis that encompasses all spheres of human reality in a globalized world that implies an intensification of the levels of interaction, interconnection or interdependence of states and societies; for this the family is also in charge of the training of the minors, before they enter school it is said that the family is the main responsible for the integral formation and values but always if it is adequate (Barudy 2005).
To achieve optimal performance in the training processes of minors, the government establishes educational care policies; from there, early childhood care programs are born with the intention of training and contributing to social work, and this is how the ICBF proposes programs that determine family social and educational integration, these programs contain policies that in large part aim to support and initiate the training of out-of-school minors to stimulate and give them parameters for what their life is like informal education, also for families, since they strengthen emotional ties compliance and commitment in the integral development of your children.
Specifically, this research analysis the different policies regarding early childhood education that the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare (ICBF) works under the supervision of the government, the integration of the family and all the comprehensive development of children, and take a logical look at compliance with established policies and their affinity for child development.
With this, the theoretical foundation, the interaction in the applied field are taken into account, to relate the disagreements, the achievements reached and the points of view in each of the users and at the end of the investigation, the effectiveness of compliance is shown, the level of acceptance that the implementation and development of the program has in early childhood formation, thus establishing a critical-reflective stance on how it is carried out and what aspects must be improved for the good application of the policy.
The researcher proposes a series of chapters that contribute greatly to the development of the proposal worked, these are established as follows, contributing to the end of the research, The first chapter deals with the part of the formulation of the problem, its questions, its objectives, and other aspects that contribute to the problem to be investigated; The second chapter deals with the part of the theoretical foundation, its conceptual references, and the investigations carried out that aim to give a clearer view of the investigative model that is being developed, in addition to the policies and legal framework that has been built to give better support to the proposal; Lastly, the methodological part of the research will be related to the design of the instruments that gave way to obtain the best information to achieve the relevant results in the preparation and completion of the research, thus reaching the series of conclusions and recommendations that emerge of the development of the research proposal, to relate one more achievement in the research carried out.
2. Theoretical framework
“Development is the process that extends from birth to adolescence, marked by times and characteristics that it calls "periods" and that keep the particularity of integrating into each other in the form of an ascending spiral, without the former being lost in what follows him.” (Jean Piaget)
Continuing with the investigative line of the present study, a theoretical framework is set out below that allows the topic of interest to be developed and thus achieve the fundamental objective proposed
The conception of the family in all formation process which allows an approach to the guidelines that have been designed on the subject, additionally a fourth vertex shows a clear explanation of the program from zero to always, establishes and relates all the documentation on care to early childhood shows a brief overview of how the government determines that operational and legal agents contribute to a large part to the development and training of children in all their contexts and life settings, who are involved in the training and who should do so, the government sets guidelines and other mandates that support early childhood training.
Childhood conceptions Childhood concepts are understood as the ideas, the imaginary, the notions of what it means to be a child, which are externalized in the various studies of psychology and pedagogy, these studies have prioritized that it is the essential stage not only for physical development but also for the acquisition and shaping of children in all their learning, customs, habits and other aspects that surround their comprehensive education; consequently, it has been determined that initial education and training are consistent with the evolution of society and its most relevant events in each historical stage of the evolution of humanity. In this particular case, reference is made to the concepts that arise in the educational field.
Childhood is the most important stage where every person lives and experiences conditions, experiences that make their lives an anecdote where evidence of learning is learned where each human being has experiences and behaviors that make them more autonomous and independent according to the situation with This is how training from this stage becomes more effective, all this is also fair if when we relate education, learning, and experiences, we take family and society as a fundamental part of this process since they contribute to the coupling and training of the condition and evolution is how these two institutions (family and school) always work hand in hand in the formation of the person not only in childhood but throughout life.
Consequently, a theory that can contribute and serves as a basis for the relationship between family and school in training is the one that took up the documentary review by researcher María Victoria Álzate (2003), in which she exposes and places in the European level the emergence of the principles of an educational and scientific organization in the 17th and 18th centuries and which give rise to the “escolar” child”.
In the Colombian sphere, Pachón and Muñoz (1996), in their documentary review, affirm that the conception of childhood has undergone a series of transformations from the beginning to the middle of the previous century, the child is an angel or a devil and then becomes a plant to be watered, it is land to be tilled; These conceptions were replaced by those of the child as a being with qualities that must be stimulated and with an emotional life from birth. On the other hand, little by little the child begins to be considered and taken into account due to his belonging to the institutions of society: family and school, he is a son and a student, becoming an institutionalized childhood, the nucleus of educational interest of adults in which the school enters to complement the work of the family in its role as an educator (Pachón y Muñoz 1996).
Learning is a life-long process, a human rights-based approach to education seeks to create opportunities for all children to reach their optimal capacities throughout childhood, and after these needs, a comprehensive approach life cycle; invest in learning and ensure effective transitions at every stage of the child's life.
The first years of life: as it is well known, they are marked by the most rapid development especially of the central nervous system, the conditions in the environment to which children are exposed in the first years always influence the formation of the brain in initial development. The environments responsible for favoring the conditions of care, learning, and protection environments vary from the family context to the broad socio-economic situation created by the governments.
For its part, Family and educational inclusion, all children in the first years are critical, helping the closest family members is essential to create a friendly and stimulating environment. But the reality for many children with disabilities and / or who have special health needs is that they are frequently condemned to "the worst start of life" and are denied timely and critical opportunities for learning and protective mechanisms to help them develop their full potential. Their families in many cases do not receive the necessary help to create this environment.
Comprehensive Training serves to guide processes that seek to achieve fundamentally, the full realization of the child from what corresponds to each of them and is proper to their vocation as well, contributes to the improvement of the quality of life in the social environment, since no human training for himself and to improve himself but he does it in a specific sociocultural context to also improve it, for this, it is essential to mention that training not only applies to teach and acquiring knowledge but also the interdisciplinary that is fundamental in the orientation and the good development of infants must be taken into account. This early childhood is indispensable and necessary for the strengthening of behaviors, habits, and more processes that children acquire for what will be their life. (Leonardo Rincón, SJ Jornadas para Docentes 2008).
Comprehensive training is important in improving children's behaviors since it relates to a good function of knowledge, habits, and customs that, in reality, human beings over the years have been transformed from childhood, which is where they are acquired, which in turn helps to improve life in society, communities, and families who largely share the training of minors, when we refer to comprehensive training we refer to the union of disciplines that contribute greatly to the enrichment and management of the stimulation of their pre-knowledge and continuing education, comprehensiveness also applies the disciplines that work for the development of the minor.
We could train so that our students simply adapt and adapt to the prevailing social model, but the commitment that we assume from Ignatian Pedagogy is to train not to re-produce the "status-quo", but to help our students to be Fully authentic men and women, capable of looking at reality lucidly and committing themselves to its transformation: that they think for themselves, that they are critical, that they act in coherence with their values and principles.
In other words, we want to train, above all, competent people, capable of discerning the signs of the times in a thoughtful, critical and committed way. (Leonardo Rincón, SJ Jornadas para Docentes 2008)
Although it is true the institutions or organization that ensure that training is effective are willing to organize and determine what kind of effective training for families to understand the true meaning of these if we relate the above to the training of minors we see that the families increasingly seek more guidance and help that determine how to form values and above all find relevance in good training.
According to the MEN Comprehensive Early Childhood Care Primer. 2012. The National Strategy for Comprehensive Attention to Early Childhood “From Zero to Always”, is a set of planned national and territorial actions, aimed at promoting and developing the child development of girls and boys in early childhood, aa through a unified and intersectoral work, from the perspective of rights and with a differential approach, articulation, and promotion of the development of plans, programs, projects and actions for comprehensive care that must guarantee each girl and each boy, according to your age, context, and condition.
The proposal from zero to always is born to give priority to the care of children in early childhood, making known the objectives and other activities that can be a specific tool for the training of minors at these ages, also makes possible the comprehensiveness of the disciplines that work towards the improvement of child development, specifically contributing more concrete methodologies in personal training, articulating fundamental rights such as health, nutrition, education, and the family.
The zero to always program is the National Strategy for Comprehensive Care for Early Childhood created in the government of President Juan Manuel Santos and whose spokesperson is headed by Mrs. María Clemencia Rodríguez de Santos, who seeks to join the efforts of the sectors public and private, of civil society organizations and international cooperation in favor of early childhood in Colombia (Comprehensive Care Primer for early childhood of the MEN. 2012).
The first demonstrates the level of responsibility together with the government's commitment to the training and development of minors and also the integration of the family in all the interaction processes of children. At that fundamental stage of life, since it has been said throughout that age that it is fundamental for personal intellectual development and learning, the government establishes this strategy also to demonstrate its work with the vulnerable and least-worked areas to which its rights are denied and sometimes violated by negative people.
The High Council for Special Programs seeks to transform the sectoral way in which early childhood care services have been provided, creating the National Strategy From Zero to Always, which brings together policies, programs, projects, actions and services aimed at early childhood, to provide true Comprehensive Care that makes effective the exercise of the rights of children between zero and five years of age (Cartilla Atención Integral para primera infancia del MEN. 2012).
As mentioned above, the interdisciplinary work and also the commitment of government entities in the formation and appropriation as such of the good development of families and children, since what is determined or wanted is the fundamental key to the future of the country with this strategy. Working is a good development, not only physically but also comprehensively, for all the children in the country, since studies have been carried out in which they show that the violation and poor training of these make the opportunities to get ahead and to obtain good future and personal progress, by obtaining a good education from early childhood, children together with their families will obtain new and better possibilities of life, progress, and improvement.
Broadly, the strategy states that "it promotes the construction of solidarity management in which resources, responsibilities, and processes interact with each other and occur with the opportunity required to guarantee that children fully enjoy their rights". This is a guarantee that cannot be sustained, since articulating each of the elements of management requires intense vigilance over each of the actions that are carried out, and this is frequently not covered by the government.
From Zero to Always is the National Strategy for Comprehensive Care for Early Childhood, which seeks to combine the efforts of the public and private sectors, civil society organizations and international cooperation in favor of Early Childhood in Colombia, which articulates all the plans, programs and actions that the Country develops. The Strategy is aimed at 5,132,000 children from 0 to 5 years of age in the country. The purpose of the current National Development Plan is to provide comprehensive and quality care for at least 1,200,000 boys and girls throughout the national territory, starting with those who are in the greatest condition of vulnerability and poverty, but with the commitment to progressively move towards universal care.
The research is qualitative, the context in which the object of study originates and develops, as well as its characteristics, conditions, facets, and interactions are analyzed; It is the description of the phenomenon that guided this proposal to predict the results of the investigation, as well as to explain its behavior. By applying this design in the research carried out, it was possible to detect the true considerations that the users of the program from zero to always have about the development and operation of the strategy and in turn determine the degree or level of use that is being given to it determining that it is a good contribution to the strengthening of the family and the bond of the formation of children.
The concept of qualitative research from different authors contribute to the idea that it has and facilitate the construction of a more coherent definition for the development and objective of this proposal, these positions are of great help for how it is mentioned above to establish that it is Qualitative research itself, therefore, by applying this research idea in the proposal presented, contributes to obtaining the appropriate information to establish the true purpose of the program.
Although it is true in many of the theories that show us that qualitative research contributes or establishes the relationship of describing and giving points of view to the problems of the educational and experiential social context, it can be said that the application of this research contributes to part to diagnose and propose from a personal point of view the opinions of what is being seen.
The qualitative methodology "is a research strategy based on a refined and rigorous contextual description of the event, behavior or situation that guarantees maximum objectivity in capturing reality, always complex, and prey to the spontaneous temporal continuity that is inherent to it, so that the corresponding systematic collection of data, categorical in nature, and regardless of its preferably ideographic and procedural orientation, enables an analysis, with the stated objective and the descriptors and indicators to which access is available” (Anguera,1995: 514 en Pérez Serrano, 2002).
The research focus is oriented to describe the positions or points of view of each one of the beneficiaries of the program from zero to whenever they were consulted, determining their thoughts and opinions about what the development of the program is like for them and how they are taking advantage of whether or not it is benefits for the training of their children. The type of research allows analyzing the conceptions that the users of the strategy have from zero to always, in order to develop a synthesis on the criteria that have been formed in the course of its development and the contributions that the same beneficiaries have given it can provide the program.
Under this affirmation, qualitative research contributes to lot in the scientific method and in the solution and relevance of the research, thanks to this, a reliable and true methodology are established to give results to the questioning. Furthermore, the research proposed is descriptive, because seeks to identify and describe from the discourses themselves and actions in people; discourses that have been constructed during their experience and actions observed in the context in which they live daily.
The universe population is made up of the inhabitants of the alcaparral, the union, tampaqueba, and la legia sidewalks, these sidewalks are enrolled in the zero-to-always program in the rural area of the municipality of Pamplona, in the application of the semi-structured interview the sample was made up of 25 families randomly.
In the research, the semi-structured INTERVIEW, applied to the beneficiaries of the zero to always program in the rural area of the municipality of Pamplona, is taken as an element of information collection as they are an active part of the program.
This instrument of qualitative methodology is taken into account, to collect and analyze the information obtained in the interview, allowing internalization of the appreciations of the families who are the beneficiaries of the program from zero to always and largely responsible for determining the level of commitment, acceptance, and responsibility that the program has had in the towns of the municipality of Pamplona.
The semi-structured interview is organized by three moments called units of analysis, each of which determines the work of the zero-to-always family modality strategy in rural areas of the municipality of Pamplona, establishing the relationship of what is worked in the family integration activities and their training with the MEN policy; each of the analysis units establishes parameters that users relate to what they experience in the operation of the program, thus determining the degree of appreciation they have regarding the operation of the program; for the first time or as the first unit of analysis is the so-called CONCEPTUAL, it indicates or relates everything related to the concept or idea that they have of the program itself, what notion they have of it and if its functions are previously established by those who are running.
A second unit is determined as METHODOLOGICAL, it establishes all the work of the educational agents who have the responsibility of carrying out the activities and the meetings with the families, as well as the degree of commitment they have to society, in this unit the practical part of the program, such as activities, resources, and other tools, are pertinent and appropriately brought to families to carry out the adequate education of their children, and in turn determine whether it is used positively by families.
By the last and third unit of analysis the so-called ACTITUDINAL is established, it determines the meaning that the carrying out of the activities and the execution of the program in the areas acquires, they also relate the activities that contribute to personal training and the training of their children, families report the degree of use of the program's operation as lived in each of the processes they have in execution and also establish to what extent the program from zero to always has contributed to the training of children / as, the appreciations that are given in this last unit of analysis can be classified in a real way as the conformity of the families in terms of the real meaning of the program in each of the sidewalks of the municipality.
This is how the semi-structured interview gives the possibility of determining the ideals that families have about the program in all its operation and development, which contributes in part to a better quality of life and the training of minors; Each of the units of analysis is complemented by a series of questions that relate and identify the objective of the interview and contribute to a greater extent to the collection of the pertinent information for the investigation.
Next, Table 1 is presented, which relates the categorization of the semi-structured interview questions and their description according to what is established in the plan's plan for zero to always in MEN (2012). (see Annex A)
Table 1. Category and subcategory
Note. The table presents the different categories and subcategories of a semi-structured interview according to the MEN. Source: author.
With the semi-structured interview, the positions of the users of the program are determined from zero to always, the analysis units established in it are classified using a series of questions that the users interpreted and answered in a way Concise and consistent staff according to what is established, the interpretation of each of them is established as follows: the category, the textual opinions of the people and the interpretation according to the theory:
Triangulation process a triangulation is carried out with each of the analysis units that make up the instrument applied the semi-structured interview confronting the reality exposed by the users of the program from zero to always analyzing their positions in general (see Annex B):
Table 2. Conceptual analysis unit
Note. The table shows the conceptual analysis unit of the semi-structural interview. Source: author.
Although it is true, the first unit of analysis of the semi-structural interview, an applied instrument; the conceptual part, the operation and the policy of the program from zero to always are categorized in it, the testimony that each of the users gives to it is established, we can see that families give a general concept to the program, showing that for them It is an aid that the government establishes for the training of their children and that of themselves, which is partly a methodology applied in each of the areas where they live, to optimize living conditions; in turn, they also conceive that the function of the program is to train children under 5 years of age in their comprehensiveness and personal development, as well as that of their families in cultural development. Thanks to this program, the beneficiary families have had a change not only in the education of their children but also in family education. This is how the beneficiaries of the program establish this as an early childhood care policy where the benefits are great and the use must be very essential for their children.
Table 3. Methodological analysis unit
Note. The table contains information regarding the methodological analysis unit of the semi-structured interview. Source: author.
When establishing the relationship of the second unit, we can see that the methodological part is provided by the educational agents who are previously selected people and with relevant profiles for the function of user training, in these categories, the views of the beneficiaries regarding The working mechanism imparted by the agents are positive, because they relate the topics of interest and set examples from everyday lifethe families declare that the topics are consistent since they help with the training of their children, and they also contribute knowledge that will be useful to them in their daily chores, strategies such as activities, games, and training are implemented for families where standards and rules of coexistence that are used for life in society; the beneficiaries, in turn, establish that the activities help them a lot because they relate to care, hygiene rules, rules of coexistence, and other aspects that shape them and train their children.
Table 4. Attitude Analysis Unit
Note. The table contains information on the attitudinal analysis unit of the semi-structural interview. Source: author.
If we see the relationship of the third unit with the operation of the program in general, it can be determined that the activities are carried out for the families of the villages to be integrated and to provide better parenting guidelines for the children, adapting the needs and protecting as for the rights of children and their families, it must be mentioned that the program provides contributions such as: to help the training and integration of children concerning their daily lives, in terms of health, to grow healthy, in addition to that of training before school life, where skills and abilities are awakened, which for children are strengths later on.
The program is relevant since it facilitates the integrity of families and the development of societies in terms of people trained to improve the quality of life, the purpose of the program is to guarantee early childhood care, and the policy of the government and the MEN is to provide this coverage to all vulnerable populations, guaranteeing the interdisciplinary nature of the entities that guarantee the development of children and their families.
To establish the family bond in the training processes of the children of the zero to always program of the city of Pamplona, the silver investigation yielded the following results, which meet the objectives established for the development of the research, where users' conceptions of the program are identified, described and analyzed.
Thanks to the analysis units and the categories established in the semi-structured interview, it is possible to determine the interest, perception, and idea that the beneficiaries of the Zero to Always program have about the operation of the program in rural areas of Pamplona, With the information obtained, it is clear to establish the conformity of the operation of the program in terms of the role of care for families, the training of minors and the integration of society. This is how the program is being carried out appropriately.
On the other hand, for some of the families, the program lacks more coverage, more structuring, and more work on the part of the educational agents, since for them there are several irregularities in some areas.
By analyzing each of the units of analysis, it is determined that the program brings benefits to the families that participate in not only the training of their children but also the personal one, also that thanks to this, the families know more about The policies and programs that help you to improve yourself several proposals help you a lot to make your quality of life even better if you violate your rights.
The program is related as a training bridge that for them is an aid that the government establishes for the formation of itself, thus optimizing living conditions; in turn, they also conceive that the function of the program is relevant and its use is essential since thanks to this program the beneficiary families have had a change not only in the education of their children but also in family education.
On the other hand, methodological is provided by educational agents who are previously selected people and with relevant profiles for the function of training users, they relate the topics of interest and set examples of daily life, families say that the topics they are consistent since they help with the training of their children, they also contribute knowledge that will help them more in their daily chores since strategies such as activities, games, and training are implemented for families where it is evident that norms and rules of coexistence are used.
For life in society, it should be noted that in this part some of the beneficiaries served do not agree with the strategies and the work of the agents because, according to them, there are many irregularities that are not adequate in the function of the program.
The operation of the program in general, it can be determined that the activities are carried out for the families of the villages to integrate and provide better parenting guidelines for the children, adapting the needs and protecting in themselves the rights of the children and their families so that the quality of life is productive, therefore it is established that the program is relevant since it facilitates the integration of families and the development of societies in terms of people trained to improve the quality of life, the purpose of the program is to guarantee early childhood care, and the policy of the government and the MEN is to provide this coverage to all vulnerable populations.
It was possible to detect that one of the shortcomings is related to the poor organization and execution of activities by some educational agents, according to the families there are many shortcomings and they are not related to training, for them, it is a waste of time and they do not contribute in better interaction and good learning in the children.
Regarding the program and its functionality, it can be seen that users are clear about the relationship of early childhood care policies established by the government for the care of the community of children and vulnerable families.
The research manages to characterize the positions that families have in relation to the program, regarding the concept and the degree of use that they give to the strategy for their education and that of their children.
This research contributes in part to evidencing the conceptual view of families regarding the execution of the program and how they see its operation in the training process of children, determining it as a training tool for family development.
A more detailed look is shown on the relationship that the beneficiaries have with the performance of activities and their daily chores, taking bases to improve their lifestyles and socialization with others.
The execution of the activities can establish that for some families the strategies that the educational agents bring are pertinent and allow better learning and development for their children.
Regarding the strategies used in the interactions, the necessary and appropriate didactic elements for a better development of their encounters are related and thus promote in the child new knowledge in the active construction of the teaching-learning processes.
Finally, it is possible to consider that the generalized conception that the beneficiaries of the program have, said the strategy is useful, timely and above all effective for the improvement of the quality of life of children and is an opportunity to acquire security in the future teaching work.
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