Germinated kamut wheat (Triticum turgidum), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and mung
bean (Vigna radiata). An alternative for the feeding of colonies of ants Atta cephalotes
under laboratory conditions.
Germinados de trigo kamut (Triticum turgidum), quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) y frijol mungo (Vigna
radiata): Una alternativa para la alimentación de colonias de hormigas Atta cephalotes en condiciones de
Margarita María Jaramillo-Ciro2* ,
Beatriz González-Agudelo3 ,
Liliana Rocío Botero-Botero3 .
The establishment of colonies of Atta cephalotes cutter ants under laboratory conditions has been proposed
for the study and development of plague control products. However, few laboratories in Colombia have
colonies of Atta cephalotes cutter ants, with food being a limiting factor given their sensitivity, selectivity
and voracity. In this study, the use of wheat germinated kamut (Triticum turgidum), quinoa (Chenopodium
quinoa) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) as an alternative for the feeding of colonies under laboratory
conditions y mango leaves like control, using mini-colonies was evaluated. In the study, mung bean sprouts
and kamut wheat were preferred (100% load, 24 hours), compared to quinoa (89 ± 10% load, 24 hours).
The determination of the effect of the sprouts on the growth rate of the mini-colonies was evaluated during
8 weeks, showing that the germinated kamut wheat and control treatment generated the best growth rates
of fungus in the exponential phase (3.19 and 3.73 g / week respectively) compared with mung beans and
quinoa (1 g / wk), supporting the potential of kamut wheat for the maintenance of colonies under laboratory
El establecimiento de colonias de hormigas cortadoras Atta cephalotes en condiciones de laboratorio se
ha planteado para el estudio y desarrollo de productos de control de plagas. Sin embargo, son pocos los
laboratorios en Colombia que poseen colonias de hormigas, siendo su alimentación un factor limitante a
causa de su sensibilidad, selectividad y voracidad. En esta investigación, se evaluó la preferencia y potencial
alimentario de germinados de trigo kamut (Triticum turgidum), quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) y frijol
mungo (Vigna radiata) como alternativa para la alimentación de colonias A. cephalotes en condiciones de
laboratorio usando mini-colonias y el control. En el estudio los germinados de frijol mungo y el trigo kamut
fueron preferidos (100% de carga durante 24 horas), respecto a la quinua (89±10% de carga durante 24
horas). Los germinados de trigo kamut y el control evidenciaron las mejores velocidades de crecimiento del
hongo en la fase exponencial (3.19 y 3.73 g / sem respectivamente) comparados con frijol mungo y quinua
(1 g / sem). El estudio evidencia el potencial del trigo kamut para el mantenimiento de colonias de hormigas
A. cephalotes en condiciones de laboratorio.
Ants of the genus Atta, commonly called mule ants or
cutter ants, are exclusive to tropical and subtropical
regions distributed from the south of the United States
to the north of Argentina. Within their distinctive
behaviors it is highlighted that they have the habit of
cutting and transporting diverse vegetable fragments
to their underground nests for the cultivation of the
fungus Leucoagaricus sp., with which they present a
symbiotic relationship characterized by a complete
mutual dependence in which the ants fulfill their
function of cutting plant material and transporting
it inside the antbeds and the fungus in turn to grow
provides food to the ants , . This fungus is the
only source of food for the larvae of cutter ants, so
ants must cultivate it and generally do it with leaves,
flowers and fruits that collect selectively, which have
necessary nutrients that allow their proper growth ,
. Cutter ants have been considered as agricultural
pests due to their forage activity that causes the
destruction of crops, forests and crops of agronomic
importance such as yucca (Manihot sculenta), cocoa
(Theobroma cacao), coffee (Coffea arabica), maize
(Zea mays), cane (Saccharum offinarum), (Citrus
sp), mango (Manguifera indiga), as well as forest
species of interest such as eucalyptus (Eucaliptus sp)
and pine (Pinus patula), causing losses of economic
importance that generate the need to apply control
strategies with chemically synthesized pesticides,
characterized by their high toxicity. However,
regulations and new agricultural trends have forced
their replacement, generating the need to develop
new, less toxic products , , , , , .
Materials and methods
Despite the great advantages of having cutter ant
colonies under controlled laboratory conditions
for the development of new control products,
few laboratories have colonies. In the studies the
difficulties for the establishment and maintenance of
the anthills are evidenced, considering the feeding
one of the limiting factors of major importance
because of the voracity of the insects, .
Generally, the diet of ants is composed of leaves and
flowers obtained from various plant sources, which
is supplemented with flour from different grains,
however, the use of leaves and flowers represents
an additional risk to the maintenance of the antbeds.
The use of systemic insecticides and fungicides is
a common practice to control pests and diseases of
plants and, generally it is difficult to know the origin
of the leaves and flowers used to feed the antbeds,
so that at some point the leaves and flowers could
be toxic and affect the survival of the colonies in
laboratory conditions , .
Seed sprouts are widely consumed for their nutritional
contribution, easy to obtain and manage in the
laboratory. With respect to dry grains, sprouts show
an increase in enzyme activity and in the availability
of amino acids, vitamins and trace minerals that are
necessary for growth, immunity and the antioxidant
system. These benefits can improve the nutritional
potential, also contributing to the control of oxidative
stress in animals and generate an additional superior
contribution to grains , .
Within these sprouts are widely known wheat kamut
(Triticum turgidum) , quinoa (Chenopodium
quinoa) [14-15] and mung bean (Vigna radiata) [16-
17], which are gluten-free grains, with a composition
and nutritional value such as rice and corn , .
This study has evaluated the use of wheat kamut
(Triticum turgidum), quinoa (Chenopodium
quinoa) and mungo bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts
in the diet of Atta cephalotes cutter ants in order
to facilitate the establishment of colonies under
laboratory conditions, thus seeking the development
of bioformulates that include plant extracts and
entomopathogenic microorganisms and antagonists.
The study was divided into 3 stages: a) the preparation
of the sprouts, b) the assembly of mini-colonies and
c) the evaluation of the potential of the sprouts as a
Assembly of mini-colonies
Preparation of sprouts
To evaluate the potential use of germinated seeds
as a food source, three species were selected: wheat
kamut (Triticum turgidum), quinoa (Chenopodium
quinoa) and mungo bean (Vigna radiata). For
germination, the seeds were immersed in water in
plastic containers for 8 hours in dark conditions at
laboratory room temperature 23±2°C. The hydrated
seeds were washed 4 times with water for the
assembly of the process, the excess was removed
and they were kept in a covered container during 3
days, with daily washes. Then, they were transferred
to containers with wet filter paper and covered with
a porous material to allow aeration, and finally, the
seeds were left in a cool place with photoperiod of 12
hours for 4 days to complete 7 days of germination.
For the assembly of mini-colonies, colonies with
more than one year of establishment were selected
under laboratory conditions usually fed with mango
leaves, with good forage and fungus activity in the
chambers of the anthill with a size superior to 20 cm,
facilitating with this the survival of those fractions
of fungus for the tests. Cleaned and disinfected
polypropylene plastic containers 12 cm wide and 8
cm high were used, to which a portion of the fungus
was deposited with a spatula. Two mini-colonies
(test and control) were arranged in each colony.
Each mini-colony consisted of 3 plastic containers
used as cameras. One of them was used as a nest, to
which a portion of the fungus of the mother colony
was deposited with ants of different castes without
the queen, the second feeding chamber where the
food was arranged and the third chamber as an empty
chamber used by the ants to deposit the residues.
These mini-colonies remained connected to the
mother colony by means of plastic hoses to allow
the communication with pheromones between the
mini-colonies and the anthill where the queen was.
Finally, the mini-colonies were connected to the
mother colony which was separated by a stainless
steel mesh to avoid any potential damage to the mother
colony from the sprouts. Each study colony was
provided with two mini-colonies, experimentation
with sprouts and control of common feeding (Figure
1). (fig 1)
Initially, the mini-colonies were left to settle for 8
days before trials began. During this time, they were
fed the maintenance diet consisting of young mango
leaves and oat flakes. Subsequently, the nest chamber
of the mini-colonies (container + fungus + ants) were
weighed to determine their growths to determine the
initial weight of experimentation before starting the
feeding trials with the sprouts. Among the criteria
taken into account for the selection of mini-colonies
in the trials were: a) The formation of new fungus
and b) The presence of leaf fragments on the fungus
as proof of its feeding activity. To achieve uniformity
in the evaluation of the sprouts, two mini-colonies
were connected to each mother colony selected for
the trial: one for the evaluation of the weight gain
with the sprouts and the other for the control carried
out with the normal food of the mother colony.
The trials were carried out in triplicate, allocating
3 colonies (each with two mini-colonies) for each
germinated colony. The mini-colonies were fed daily
with 2 g of fresh food, either mango leaves (used as
control food) or sprouts, which were deposited in the
Determination of ants’ preference for sprouts
Determining the Initial Load: To make an initial
quantification of the weight of the sprouts loaded
and the preferences of the ants, the initial load was
determined. For this purpose, 10 g of each one of the
germinated were placed separately by mini-colony
in the feeding chambers during 24 hours, time after
which the weighing was carried out to determine the
amount of germinated loaded by the ants.
Determination of nutritional potential: In order to
determine the nutritional potential of the sprouts, the
weight increase of the mini-colonies was determined
every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Daily, the food not used
by the ants was removed and replaced by new food.
Additionally, in the cases in which the food was
exhausted during the day, the same germinated one
was added with the same weight, thus allowing the
feeding at will.
In order to determine the nutritional potential of the
sprouts, the mini-colonies were weighed in weeks 0,
2, 4, 6 and 8 of the trial, which allowed establishing
the growth kinetics for each of the treatments.
Determination of percentage and growth rate: The
growth percentage of myicolony was calculated
using equation 1: (eq 1)
To estimate the long-term nutritional potential of the
sprouts, the growth rate of the mini-colonies was
calculated. At the end of the evaluation period, the
data were adjusted by means of a regression equation
in order to determine the slope of the growth curve
and the growth curve of the mini-colony (g /week) as
defined in , .
Results and discussion
The results of germ load, growth percentage and
growth speed of the mini-colonies were analyzed
with the statistical software R version 2017. For the
hypothesis test, a variance analysis (ANOVA) and
the multiple range test (P=0.05) were performed to
determine significant differences between treatments.
The study used a block design with 3 repetitions for
each of the treatments.
Determination of ant´s preference for sprouts
In this study, all the sprouts were loaded by the ants,
evidencing that the three sprouts, mung bean, kamut
wheat and quinoa, can be included in the nutritional
diet of the mule ants Atta cephalotes. When
analyzing the quantities of germinated loaded, it was
evidenced the preference by the bean mungo and the
wheat kamut, which reached the quantities of load of
10 g as well as the control. The preference for quinoa
was lower with values of 8.9 ± 0.2 g, evidencing a
level of control of the ants of the mini-colonies on
the ingestion of this germinated one. In the study the
statistical analysis did not find significant differences
between the preferences for mung bean, kamut wheat
and the control, but between the quinoa germination
(P<0,002). The causes of food preferences can be
generated for multiple reasons; in the case of mung
bean and kamut wheat sprouts, the amount of water
can generate an additional element of preference,
facilitating cutting and favoring hydration and
access to nutrients by placing them in values similar
to control preference (Figure 2, Figure 3).
Partial rejection response to quinoa may also
result from the presence of primary or secondary
metabolites and antibacterial and antifungal agents
present in quinoa sprouts . Some studies show
the antifungal potential of quinoa against Botrytis
cinerea using the extraction of saponins extracted
from seeds on conidial germination and mycelium
growth . This same metabolite has been used
for the control of Candida albicans . Given the
sensitivity of these insects, it is feasible that these
have been detected by the ants generating some type
of rejection, that in this study is evidenced in the
weight of loaded towards the chamber of the minicolonies. (fig 2-3)
Another factor that may be associated with preference
is nutritional composition. Some authors suggest
that worker forage ants obtain only 5% to 9% of the
mycelium nutritional requirements of the fungus,
since during foraging they ingest plant sap ,
, so that food selectivity may be associated with
preferred ant compounds such as polysaccharides. In
studies carried out with Atta sexdens cutter ants, it
is reported that ants had a better preference for diets
with high glucose concentration, generating a higher
survival . Some authors report carbohydrate
percentages of 10 % and 6 % for kamut wheat and
mung bean respectively. Other studies also indicate
values of 4.1% in the form of sucrose in kamut wheat
, which could generate a differentiating element
that would affect not only the preference of ants and
the nutritional potential of kamut wheat that would
later be reflected in the growth of mini-colonies.
Differences in glucose content between sprouts
could be one of the causes of the differences found
in this study. some reports show that the vegetable
fragments cut by ants serve as available substrate
to produce enzymes such as amylases, pectinases,
cellulases, biomass converting hemicellulases and
sugar compounds that help the growth of symbiont
fungus , .
The studies carried out with Triticum sp. indicate that
the germination processes generate decomposition
of complex polysaccharides including starch. This
results in increased concentrations of reducing
sugars, amino acids, and many other molecules of
nutritional importance to the developing embryo
. From a nutritional point of view, it is possible
that the diversity of simple molecules present in
kamut wheat have been easily accessible to ants and
this has contributed to the preference by increasing
It is important to note that other researchers
contradict these studies by indicating that ants
obtain food directly from the leaves they forage,
but that polysaccharides do not necessarily pass
through their mouth filter and therefore do not make
a significant part of their diet. In the case of the ants
Atta cephalotes these nutrients can continue being a
factor that determines the preference or rejection, but
they would not necessarily correspond to nutrients
that are incorporated directly to their feeding. In spite
of this, they could still be important for the feeding
of colonies to the extent that they can be exploited
by the symbiote fungus , , , .
Studies by other authors indicate that ants collect
approximately 6% of their body weight in
carbohydrates using Ligustrum ovalofolium leaves
as a diet. However, other authors ,  found
higher values of direct use of forage material, reducing
to only 9% the nutritional needs obtained from the
fungus. This report contradicts the majority that
indicate that the mutualist relationship is so close that
nutrients are taken in the totality of the symbiontus
fungus Leucoagaricus spp. The carbohydrates of
the mung bean have high potential as a nutritional
element and an energetic and constitutional source of
energetic molecules that could favor their preference
for their palatability , .
Growth of mini-colonies
In the study, the mini-colonies fed with kamut wheat
sprouts and the control obtained the best results
with growth rates in the exponential growth stage
of 3.78 and 3.71 g / week respectively (Table I),
which allowed reaching values of 25 ± 4 g and 26
± 2 g and respectively for the sixth week. Kamut
wheat presented the highest growth values reaching
percentages of 36%, even surpassing the control
with values of 33%.
In the case of the mung bean the growth rate was 1.07
g / week. For this germinated one stage of adaptation
was presented that delayed the growth of the minicolonies
reaching values of 7 ± 3 g for the fourth
week, values lower than the control you obtained for
this time pesos of 17 ± 3 g (Figure 4). (tab 1)
In the case of quinoa sprouts, there was a decrease
in growth rate, reaching 1 g / week (Table I) and
low increase in the weight of the fungus of the minicolonies
(Figure 4). In quinoa the production of
primary or secondary metabolites is reported 
and the presence of antibacterial and antifungal
agents that would affect the growth and development
of the symbiote fungus and with it the survival of the
mini-colonies, which would help to explain this low
growth response. (fig 4)
As Hidalgo et al.,  indicate, grains of mature
kamut wheat contain many enzymes such as
amylases, proteases, oxidases and lipases that exert
essential and specific functions during the early
stages of sprouting that aid the development of
the seedlings and that influence their quality and
nutritional properties of the germinate. In this study,
these authors also report that amylases are of great
importance in pseudocereals because they catalyze
the degradation of starch, considered the basis of
most food processing pathways. Amylases allow the
formation of linear and branched oligosaccharides,
maltotriose, glucose and maltose that could have been
an easily accessible food source for the symbiont
fungus and ants. These transformation processes
would therefore facilitate the use and increase of
the weight of the fungus for the mini-colonies, thus
generating the differences found between the sprouts
and the growth kinetics that for the kamut wheat in
this study was similar to the control (26 ± 2 g).
In this study, quinoa sprouts were not suitable for
feeding colonies of A. cephalotes cutter ants. In
general they were the least preferred, with an initial
load of 8.9 ± 0.2 g (Figure I), and the lowest increases
in the weight of the fungus of the mini-colonies
(Figure III) and with growth rates of 1g / week
(Table I). It is important to highlight that according
to some studies, the nutritional power of quinoa
begins to decrease after 3 days of germination, being
possible that the germination time used in this study
(8 days) has affected its nutritional potential . It
is also possible that in the germinated quinoa there
are primary or secondary metabolites with fungicidal
activity that affect the growth of the mini-colonies.
Sprouts of pseudocereal grains with high nutritional
potential have become an excellent option to
increase nutritional benefits and effects .
Kamut wheat, which was the sprouted wheat with
the best nutritional potential, generated the highest
growths of the fungus (25.0 ± 4 g hasta la octava
semana). These results can be supported with the
nutritional reports provided by Singh, et al  who
analyzed the nutritional power of this germinated
pseudocereal, where they indicate that sprouting
leads to a significant increase in amino acid levels
in the proteolytic protein excision process, which
increases the level of free amino acids and the
solubilization of polypeptides, given the amount of
proteins present in the seeds, activities that in general
can be the generators of these good results , ,
, , , . When analyzing the growth
percentage of the mini-colonies, it was evident that
after 8 weeks the values were between 8% and 37%.
The kamut wheat sprout was the one that presented
the best growth values, reaching values of 37%,
surpassing even the control that presented values of
33% and evidencing the potential of wheat sprouts
for the maintenance of colonies under laboratory
conditions (fig 5)
When analyzing the results of the tests of preference
of the ants for the germinated ones, it is observed
that given the high preference of load, there was
a high percentage of growth of the mini-colonies
after 8 weeks with a value between 8% and 37%.
It can be inferred that the pseudocereals show a
nutritional potential for Atta cephalotes cutter ants,
since the operator ants load during the foraging
activity or food sources that help the development
of the symbiote fungus , . These results agree
with the nutritional reports of pseudocereals whose
main component is starches , and are considered
as a source of macronutrients and micronutrients
including proteins, fiber, fats, minerals and vitamins
Some studies carried out to determine the effects
of germination on the nutritional potential of seeds
indicate that sprouting improves the vitamin intake
of pseudocereals. These buds, after germination,
have greater biological activities and more abundant
secondary metabolites, since the relevant biosynthetic
enzymes are activated during the initial stages of
germination, improving nutritional and medicinal
qualities . Según Andreas (2017), mung bean
sprouts stand out for having a high concentration
of vitamin C, ascorbic acid, and high antioxidant
activity compared to ripe grains . Likewise,
mung bean seed is rich in essential amino acids such
as leucine, isoleucine and valine. However, other
authors contradict this idea, since these sprouts can
present low levels of proteins and minerals, due to
the high amount of water and other biochemical
Germination significantly reduces levels of sugars
and reducing starches and in addition, raffinose
and stachyose are completely eliminated during
germination. The decrease in sucrose in the later
stages of sprouting may be due to a lack of raffinose,
resulting in the hydrolysis of sucrose for energy
supply. The nutritional composition in the structuring
elements such as the amino acids of the mung bean, is
evidenced in the growth of the colonies with the best
growth of the colony (20.0 ± 4 g en la semana 8), which
postulates it as an alternative food for fodder ants of
the genus Atta. Other carbohydrates such as fructose
and glucose increase drastically in the germinative
material, especially in the initial germination phase
 . Although the mung bean did not generate
the best results, the carbohydrates in it have high
nutritional and energetic potential that contribute to
the growth of the mini-colonies , . A wide
range of metabolites are reported for mongo beans,
including different phenolic acids such as gentístico
acid, cinnamic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid,
other acids such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, shikimic
acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and coumarin and
catechin, all of which may together be factors that
affect the symbiotic relationship between the fungus
and the ant, generating negative effects such as those
evidenced in the first weeks of study .
When analyzing protein contents, studies comparing
cereals and pseudocereals indicate that both present
similar amounts of crude protein. In the case of
quinoa, significant percentage of peptides are
reported with about 35% , however this content
was not a generator of fungus growth in the minicolony.
It is important to determine other factors such as the
concentration of tannins present in cereals such as
wheat and some pseudocereals such as quinoa. This
type of compounds affect the functionality of many
molecules and generate a lower digestibility of most
nutrients, especially proteins . The presence of
tannins may help explain the negative results found
in this study.
The highest growth rates of the symbiote fungus
Leucoagaricus gongylophorus were presented
by the kamut wheat sprouts and the exponential
phase control with values of 3.19 and 3.73 g/week
respectively, compared with mung and quinoa
beans with a speed of 1 g/week (Table I). The
growth rates in the different treatments evaluated
presented significant differences between the control
and kamut wheat and mung bean with quinoa
(P<0.004). To understand the differences between
these pseudocereals, we could resort to studies in
which it is indicated that although starch is stored
in semi-crystalline structures called starch granules,
which vary in size, shape and amylose relationship:
amylopectin  which affects the technofunctional
properties of its food derivatives ,  and
possibly affects the nutritional potential of sprouts
Despite the nutritional reports of mung beans, the
results of their nutritional potential for the minicolonies
were not the best in the eighth week of
study and growth rates reached lower values with
1 g / week, (Table I). For this germinated one stage
of adaptation of the mini-colonies was presented
that delayed its growth the first month of study as
a consequence of the change of feeding only an
increase was obtained for the week 8 with values of
20 ± 4 g (Figura IV), comparado con el control 26
± 2 g). It is possible that the antimicrobial activity
reported for this pseudocereal would have affected
the growth of the mini-colony . However, this
negative effect was surpassed for the second month
of the trial, where growth rates were improved by
demonstrating the ants› capacity to adapt.
This increase in speed supports the nutritional
potential of this pseudocereal which is known
because both its seeds and shoots are a rich source
of nutrients . However, the effect of the high
content of flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic
acids and lipids flavone, isoflavone, flavonoids and
isoflavonoids ,  and the wide variety of
organic acids, including phosphoric acid and citric
acid, and lipids, including tocophore  could have
effects not so clear given the mutualism ant - fungus.
In the medium term this pseudocereal could be
included to diversify the feeding of Atta cephalotes
colonies under laboratory conditions, however,
quantities and proportions should be evaluated.
The growth rate (g/week) was the differentiating
variable for the evaluation of sprouts, where kamut
wheat had values 3 times higher than mungo bean
and quinoa. Kamut wheat contains 16% protein,
having a higher nutritional value than mung bean
which has approximately 3% . The results show
that the evaluation of the kinetics of the weight of
the colonies is useful to evaluate ants’ capacity to
use the nutrients present in their diets.
This study concludes that kamut wheat sprouts
(Triticum turgidum) is the sprout with the best
potential as a food source for Atta cephalotes
cutter ant colonies under laboratory conditions.
It is recommended to continue searching for more
feeding options that allow to develop food rotation
schemes with other carbohydrate-rich sources and to
evaluate it in other species of the genus Atta, which
are also considered pest insects and are widely used
in studies in laboratory conditions.
We are grateful to Colciencias for its economic
support that made possible the development of this
study, to the center of laboratories and the Vicerectory
of Investigations of the University of Medellín, to the
University CES and the company Biotropical S.A.
We especially want to thank the human team of the
group GRINBIO for their technical and professional
contribution in the development of the project.
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Respuestas, 23 (2) July - December 2018, pp. 62-74, ISSN 0122-820X
1 Magíster en Ingeniería Urbana, Orcid: 0000-0003-4883-2618, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín, Colombia, email@example.com
2* Magíster en Ingeniería Urbana, Orcid: 0000-0002-7424-4425, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín, Colombia, firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Licenciada en Biología y química, Orcid: 0000-0003-0626-3808, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín, Colombia, email@example.com
4 Doctor en Biología, Orcid: 0000-0002-1738-0148, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín, Colombia, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received on January 21, 2018 - Approved on June 12, 2018.
How to cite :J. Ramírez-Olier, M.M. Jaramillo-Ciro, B. González-Agudelo and L.R. Botero-Botero, “Germinated kamut wheat
(Triticum turgidum), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and mung bean (Vigna radiata). An alternative for the feeding of colonies of
ants Atta cephalotes under laboratory conditions”, Respuestas, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 62-74, 2018.
Received on January 23, 2018 - Approved on June 06, 2018.