1Chemistry, , firstname.lastname@example.orgORCID 0000-0003-2034-4495 Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona, Colombia
2*PhD in Chemistry Sciences, email@example.com ORCID 0000000-0002-0602-9299 Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona, Colombia.
How to cite:
: M.C. Parra-Hernadez y D.A. Torres-Sanchez , “Chemical and thermal characterization of the construction material of nests of seven species of wasps from Norte de Santander - Colombia.”. Respuestas, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 27-38, 2019.
Received on August 09, 2018; Approved on November 10, 2018
Social wasps are insects that construct their nests using wood pulp, plant and themselves secretions for the accomplishment of their activities as a colony. Currently in Colombia, there is little knowledge about this interesting material due to its characteristics, which could be used in promising applications. In this work the chemical and thermal characterization of nests of seven species of wasps (Agelaia pallipes, Agelaia multipicta, Agelaia areata, Polybia aequatorialis, Parachartergus apicalis, Mischucytharus imitator, Brachygastra lecheguana) living in Norte de Santander, was carried out with the purpose of establishing if there are significant differences between species and provide information that could be used as a model or precursors for the synthesis in biomimetics and / or nanotechnology. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed using a Thermal analyser SDT-Q600 from T.A. Instruments. An infrared spectrophotometer FT-IR SHIMADZU Prestige-21 with ATR was used for infrared analysis. The fluorescence analysis (XRF) was performed using a sequential X-ray fluorescence spectrometer of dispersive wavelength of 4kW BRUKER model S8 TIGER. The thermogravimetric analysis shows three mass losses and four degradation processes related to moisture loss, degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The infrared analysis allowed identifying characteristic functional groups of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Through the X-ray fluorescence analysis, some metals such as K, Ca, Al, Mg, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Li were found. The analyses made of the samples allowed to establish differences and similarities in the construction material of the studied species.
Keywords:Wasps, Nests, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF).
Las avispas sociales son insectos que construyen sus nidos utilizando pulpa de madera, secreciones de plantas y de diferentes partes de su cuerpo que requieren para la realización y ejecución de sus actividades como colonia. Actualmente en Colombia se tiene poco conocimiento acerca de este material que podría aprovecharse en diferentes aplicaciones. En el presente trabajo se realizó la caracterización química y térmica de nidos de siete especies de avispas (Agelaia pallipes, Agelaia multipicta, Agelaia areata, Polybia aequatorialis, Parachartergus apicalis, Mischucytharus imitator, Brachygastra lecheguana) de Norte de Santander con motivos de establecer si existen diferencias significativas entre especies y proporcionar información que sea la base de otras investigaciones encaminadas hacia la utilización de estos materiales como modelos o precursores de síntesis en biomimética y/o nanotecnología. Los análisis termogravimétrico (TGA) y calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC) se realizaron empleando un equipo SDT-Q600 de T.A. Instruments. Para el análisis infrarrojo se utilizó un espectrofotómetro infrarrojo FT-IR SHIMADZU Prestige-21 con ATR. El análisis de fluorescencia (XRF) se realizó empleando un espectrómetro secuencial de fluorescencia de rayos X de longitud de onda dispersiva de 4kW marca BRUKER modelo S8 TIGER. En el análisis termogravimétrico se encontraron tres pérdidas de masa y cuatro procesos de degradación relacionados con la pérdida de humedad, la degradación de hemicelulosa, celulosa y lignina. El análisis infrarrojo permitió determinar grupos funcionales característicos de celulosa, hemicelulosa y lignina. A través del análisis de fluorescencia de rayos X, se detectaron los metales K, Ca, Al, Mg, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se y Li. Los análisis realizados permitieron establecer diferencias y similitudes en el material de construcción de las diferentes especies.
Keywords:v is pa s , Nidos, Análisis Termogravimétrico (TGA), Calorimetría Diferencial de barrido (DSC), Espectrofotometría Infrarroja (FTIR), Fluorescencia de Rayos x (XRF).
Wasps are insects of the order of hymenoptera and suborder apocrite ,. Hymenoptera are one of the richest metazoan orders on the planet with about 115,000 to 199,000 species described ,,,. Wasps are important within tropical ecosystems because they are insects used in biogeographic and ecological studies, as potential biological control agents, in comprehensive studies involving other zoological and floristic groups, and as bioindicators of regional ecological conditions.
Biologically, they are characterized by building collective nests made of chewed wood pulp. The social wasps are organized in three castes, the reproductive females (queens) in charge of laying eggs, the sterile females (workers) and the males. Once they have built their nests, by chewing wood fibers, they deposit their eggs in compartments or cells, where they develop into larvae and pupae, emerging as adults ,. In temperate regions, a colony lasts only one season: queens being paired hibernate for about 90 days to emerge in spring and form new colonies; workers live for short periods of time, while males generally die after fertilizing the queen . According to nesting sites, ethno-species build their nests on three types of substrates: constructions, terrestrial and vegetal or arboreal. The first refers to sites and materials of anthropogenic origin . Terrestrial substrate refers to natural cavities or abandoned animal cavities, and plant substrate includes weeds, shrubs, leaves, tree branches and hollow trunks , the latter being used by most ethno-species for the establishment of their colonies. In the nests, several central activities of the colony occur, such as the reuse of breeding cells, care of immatures until the emergence in adults, provision of chewed prey for their offspring, trophylaxis and reproductive time division of labor ,,.
The way in which the nests are built and the characteristics of the material needed to do so highlight the interest of these social insects as models for different human needs, especially for bioclimatic architectural designs and the design of new materials . Currently, the air circulation system in wasp and termite nests is being applied in the optimization of energy consumption in different human constructions .
In recent years, biomimetics has been inspired by biological designs, consisting of the imitation of forms and processes of nature, which can be copied to sustainably and effectively improve the design of different processes and services required by humans ,. In addition, bioengineering and biotechnology have taken advantage of many biological models to understand and solve problems that may be related to food production, pharmaceuticals, and the health of human beings and animals ; in the field of health, in the creation of nanoparticles for biomedical purposes .
This study was carried out for the purpose of chemically and thermally characterizing the nests built by seven species of wasps from Norte de Santander, Colombia, and to establish whether there are significant differences between species and to provide information to serve as the basis for other research aimed at the use of these materials in different applications..
The characteristic bands of the compounds, in the FTIR spectra of the nests of the different species, exhibit the presence of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, as well as aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, ketones and aliphatic acids.
Through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were found in all samples mostly iron and aluminum, results that differ from that reported for nests of species not found in Colombia, which contain more calcium and potassium.
Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nest samples of the analyzed species A. pallipes, A. multipicta, A. areata, P. aequatorialis, P. apicalis, M. imitator and B. lecheguana, presented four losses of mass, the first of these (50.32 ± 0.84 - 87.45± 6.74 °C) attributed to the loss of water in the form of moisture absorbed in the surface of the nest; In addition to this there are three other processes, the first (200,39 ± 2,34 °C - 238,58 ± 1,80 °C) attributed to the decomposition of hemicelluloses, the second process (274,10 ± 4,65 °C - 307,39 ± 1,23 °C) associated with cellulose degradation and the third process (323,22 ± 0,34 °C - 350,95 ± 8,15 °C) corresponding to lignin degradation.
By thermal analysis, it is found that the nests of the species M. imitator, P. apicalis and A. multipicta have less thermal stability compared to the samples of the other species, and the building material of these species is characterized by starting the degradation process at relatively lower temperatures, which causes a reduction in thermal stability. Behavior that is probably associated with a greater volatility of the extracts (low molecular weight compounds).
The results of the different analyses indicate that there are variables of structure, composition and thermal behaviour that differ significantly in the nests regardless of the species, genus or place of origin of the samples.
can offer very promising applications in adsorption studies, other authors affirm that the composition of the material is quite different from one species to another, and report that the most important components in the nests are: Ca, Si, Al, Mg and K, this coincides with the results obtained in this study, although the metal found in greater quantity was iron ,.
The authors thank the University of Pamplona for its economic support during the execution of this work, Dr. Orlando Tobias Silveira who carried out the taxonomic identification of the specimens up to the species level, Zootechnist Wolfgang Hoffmann who identified the specimens up to the genus level, located and collected the nests; and Magister José Quintana for his participation in the execution of the XRD and XRF analyses.References
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