Germinados de trigo kamut (Triticum turgidum), quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) y frijol mungo (Vigna radiata): Una alternativa para la alimentación de colonias de hormigas Atta cephalotes en condiciones de laboratorio.

Germinated kamut wheat (Triticum turgidum), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and mung bean (Vigna radiata). An alternative for the feeding of colonies of ants Atta cephalotes under laboratory conditions.

Contenido principal del artículo

Johana Ramírez Olier
Margarita María Jaramillo Ciro
Beatriz González Agudelo
Liliana Rocío Botero Botero

Resumen

En este artículo, se muestra la metodología para evaluar los efectos lineales y no lineales presentes en un sistema de radio sobre fibra óptica (Radio over Fibre, RoF) empleando la técnica multiplexacion por división de onda densa (Dense Wavelenght Division Multiplexing, DWDM) con esparcimientos de 50GHz, según las normas de la Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones (International Telecommunication Union, ITU) con una velocidad de canal de 10 Gbps, a una potencia de entrada en el canal óptico de 30mW, para tramos de fibra óptica de 40km, 60km y 80km. Se presenta el modelado del sistema de RoF representado en forma gráfica a través de diagrama de bloques por medio de la herramienta computacional Matlab, donde se implementan cada una de las etapas del sistema de RoF usando las librerías ofrecidas por el Toolbox de simulink de Matlab. Como resultado se obtiene que la metodología propuesta para la evaluación del sistema RoF empleando la técnica DWDM permite analizar los efectos lineales y no lineales; donde se observa que los efectos que degradan la señal son proporcionales a las distancias de la fibra óptica establecidas y que la potencia óptica de entrada empleada es óptima para que la fibra óptica se comporte como medio no lineal.   

Palabras clave:

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Detalles del artículo

Referencias (VER)

T.M. Della Lucia, L.C., Gandra, y R.N Guedes, “Managing leaf-cutting ants: Peculiarities, trends and challenges”, Pest Management Science. vol 70, no 1, pp. 14–23, mar. 2014.

R. Zanetti, J.C. Zanuncio, J.C. Santos, W. da Silva, G. Ribeiro, P.G. Lemes, T. Ribeiro, P.G. Lemes, y W. Paiva da Dilva, “An Overview of integrated management of leaf-cutting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Brazilian forest plantations”, Forests., vol 5, no 1, 439–454, mar. 2014.

J. Montoya-Lerma, C. Giraldo-Echeverri, I. Armbrecht, A. Farji-brener, y Z. Calle, “Leaf-cutting ants revisited: Towards rational management and control”, International Journal of Pest Management., vol 58, no 3, pp. 225-247, ago. 2012.

M.A. Nickele, M. R. Pie, W. Reis Filho, S. do Rocio Chiarello Penteado “Formigas cultivadoras de fungos: estado da arte e direcionamento para pesquisas futuras”, Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira, vol. 33, no. 73, pp. 53-72, mar. 2013.

R. Escobar, F. García, J. Neita, D. Murillo, S. Mena, “Hormigas cortadoras de la tribu Attini en sistemas productivos del departamento del Chocó”, Revista institucional Universidad Tecnológica del Choco, vol.15, pp. 35-45, 2002.

J. Montoya-Lerma, P. Chacon de Ulloa y M.R. Manzano. “Caracterización de nidos de la Hormiga arriera, Atta cephalotes (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae) en Cali (Colombia)”, Revista Colombiana de Entomología, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 151-158, oct. 2006.

A. Ortiz, G.E. Guzmán, “Las hormigas cortadoras de hojas del Departamento de Antioquia. Medellín”, Colombia: 1st ed. Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2007.

E.I. Valderama, C. Giraldo, J. Montoya Lerma, I. Armbrecht, Z. Calle, “Guía para el establecimiento y manejo de colonias artificiales de hormiga arriera Atta cephalotes (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae)”, Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle, vol. 7, no.2, pp.7-16, ene. 2006.

R.D.S. Camargo, J.A. Fonseca; J.F. Santos Lopes; L.C Forti “Influência do ambiente no desenvolvimento de colonias iniciais de formigas cortadeiras (Atta sexdens rubropilosa)” Ciencia Rural. Vol. 43, no.8, pp. 1375-1380, ago. 2013.

J. Sosa-Calvo, A. Jesovnik, E. Okonski y T.R. Schultz “Locating, collecting, and maintaining colonies of fungus-farming ants (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae: Attini)”, Sociobiology, vol. 62, no.2, pp. 300–320, jun. 2015.

S.V. Rama Rao, B. Prakash, U. Rajkumar, M. V. L. N. Raju, T. Srilatha, E. P. K. Reddy “Effect of supplementing germinated sprouts of millets on performance, carcass variables, immune and anti-oxidant responses in commercial broiler chickens reared during tropical summer season”, Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. Vol 88, no. 6, pp. 740-743, feb. 2018.

O.N., Donkor, L., Stojanovska, P., Ginn, J., Ashton, T., Vasiljevic, “Germinated grains - sources of bioactive compounds” Food Chemistry, 135, 950–959, dic, 2012

F. Boukid, S. Folloni, S. Sforza, E. Vittadini, B. Prandi, “Current Trends in Ancient Grains-Based Foodstuffs: Insights into Nutritional Aspects and Technological Applications”. Food Science and Food Safety. Vol 17, no. 1, pp. 123-136, nov. 2018.

R. Schoenlechner, S. Siebenhandl, E. Berghofer “Pseudocereals”, en Gluten-Free Cereal Product and Beverages. 1a ed, pp. 149–190, Elsevier; New York, NY, USA: 2008.

J. Taylor, J. Awika, “Cereals, Pseudocereals, and Legumes: Sustainable, Nutritious, and Health-Promoting Foods for the 21st Century”, Gluten-Free Ancient Grains. 1a ed. Woodhead Publishing Limited; Duxford, UK: 2017.

H.M.H. Zhang, H.S. Cai, “Discussion on the study of lipid-lowering by traditional Chinese medicine. Lishizhen”, Materials and Medicinal Research, 1995. 6:34–35.

D. Tang, Y. Dong, H. Ren, Li Li, C.HE. “A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)”, Chemistry Centra lJournal, vol. 4, no.8, pp. 1-9, ene. 2014.

R. Schoenlechner, S. Siebenhandl, E. Berghofer, “Pseudocereals”. En Gluten-Free Cereal Product and Beverages. 2008. pp. 149–190. Elsevier; New York, NY, USA. ISBN: 9780080557762.

S. Martínez, M. G., “Pruebas de crecimiento, síntesis in vitro y caracterización de 10 cepas de hongos ectomicorrizógenos”. Tesis de maestría, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F. 1992.

A. Vázquez-García, G. Santiago-Martínez y A. Estrada-Torres. “Influencia del pH en el crecimiento de quince cepas de hongos ectomicorrizógenos”. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Serie Botánica vol.73, pp.1-15, 2002.

M. Sundaram, K. Sivakumar, Karthikeyan, A. Bhuvaneshwari, Aishwarya.G, S.Thirumalai and M.Pennarasi. “Studies on in vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal property and antioxidant potency of Murraya paniculata”, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 10, no. 10, 925-929, 2011.

Stuardo, M., San Martín, R., “Antifungal properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) alkali treated saponins against Botrytis cinereal”, Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 27, 296–302, nov, 2008.

Woldemichael, G., Wink, M., “Identification and biological activities of triterpenoid saponins from Chenopodium quinoa”, Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry, vol. 49, 2327–2332, may, 2001.

Littledyke, M., Cherrett, J.M., “Direct ingestion of plant sap from cut leaves by the leaf-cutting ants Atta cephalotes (L.) and Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich) (Formicidae, Attini)”, Bulletin of Entomological Research. vol. 66, 205–217, jun, 1976.

Quinlan, R.J., Cherrett, J.M., “The role of fungus in the diet of the leaf-cutting ant Atta cephalotes (L.).”, Ecological Entomological. vol. 4, 151–160, may. 1979

A. Silva, M. Bacci, C. Gomes de Siqueira, O. Correa Bueno, F. C. Pagnocca, M. J. Aparecida Hebling. “Survival of Atta sexdens workers on different food sources”, Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 49, 307–313, abr, 2003

Nutritional Value. Wheat, sprouted. Copyright 2018 NutritionValue.org., dic, 2018. [Online]. Disponible en: https://www.nutritionvalue.org/

Lange, L; Grell, M.N, “The prominent role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the ant–fungus biomass conversion symbiosis”, Applied Microbiology and Biothecnology, vol. 98, 4839–4851, nov, 2014. DOI 10.1007/s00253-014-5708-5

Silva, A; Bacci Jr, M; Pagnocca, F.C; Bueno ,O.C; Hebling, M.J.A” Production of Polysaccharidases in Different Carbon Sources by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Mçller (Singer), the Symbiotic Fungus of the Leaf-Cutting Ant Atta sexdens Linnaeus”Curent Microbiology.Vol53 68-71.2006.

P.V., Hung, T., Maeda, S., Yamamoto, N., Morita, “Effects of germination on nutritional composition of waxy wheat”, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 667–672, feb, 2012.

R.J., Quinlan, J.M., Cherrett, “Studies on the role of the infrabucal pocket of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich) (Hym., Formicidae)”, Insects Sociaux, vol. 25, 237–295, sep. 1978

M.M., Martin, R.M., Carman, J.G., MacConnel, “Nutrients derived from the fungus cultured by the fungus-growing ant Atta colombica tonsipes”, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol, 62, 11–13, ene. 1969

C.G., Siqueira, M. Jr., Bacci, F.C., Pagnocca, O.A., Bueno, M.J.A., Hebling, “Asimilation of vegetal cell wall polysaccharide by the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 64, 4820–4822, 1998.

M. Jr., Bacci, M.M., Anversa, F.C., Pagnocca, “Cellulose degradation by Leucocoprinus gongylophorus, the fungus cultured by the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa”, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, vol, 67, 385–386, dic. 1995

M., Bass, J.M. Cherrett, “Fungal hyphae as a source of nutrients for the leaf- cutting ant Atta sexdens”, Physiological Entomology, vol 20, 1–6, jun, 1995

M. Sundaram, K. Sivakumar, Karthikeyan, A. Bhuvaneshwari, Aishwarya.G, S.Thirumalai and M.Pennarasi. “Studies on in vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal property and antioxidant potency of Murraya paniculata”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol 10, no. 10, 925-929, 2011.

A. Hidalgo, M. Brusco, L. Plizzari, A. Brandolini. “Polyphenol oxidase, alpha-amylase and beta-amylase activities of Triticum monococcum, Triticum turgidum and Triticum aestivum: A two-year study” Journal of Cereal Science. vol. 58, no.1, pp 51-58, jul, 2013.

D.C. Chaparro Rojas, R.Y. Pismag Portilla, A. Elizalde Correa, N.J. Vivas Quila, y C.A. Erazo Caicedo. “Effect of the germination on the protein content and digestibility in amaranth, quinua, soy bean and guandul seeds”. Revista Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial, vol 8, no 1, 35-42, ene. 2010.

K., Nelson, L., Stojanovska, T., Vasiljevic, M., Mathai, “Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol 91, 429–441, jun, 2013.

A.K., Singh, J., Rehal, A., Kaur, G., Jyot, “Enhancement of attributes of cereals by germination and fermentation: a review”, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55, 1575–1589, oct, 2015

A. Mubarak, “Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of mung bean seeds (Phaseolus aureus) as affected by some home traditional processes”, Food Chemestry, vol 89, 489-495, mar, 2005.

D. Tang, Y. Dong, H. Ren, L, Li, C. He, “A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)”, Chemistry Central Journal, vol 8, 4-10, jul, 2013

E-SA. Abdel-Rahman, F.A., El-Fishawy, M.A. El-Geddawy, T., Kurz, M.N. El-Rify, “The changes in the lipid composition of mung bean seeds as affected by processing methods”. International Journal Food Engineering, vol 3, nº 5, 1-10. ene, 2007

R.F. Tester, J. Karkalas, X. Qi “Starch—Composition, fine structure and architecture”, Journal of Cereal Science. vol 39, no 2, 151–165, mar. 2004.

C. M. Haros, R. Schoenlechner “Pseudocereals”, Chemistry and Technology. 1a ed. Wiley Blackwell; Chichester, UK: 2017. 256 p.

F. Janssen, A. Pauly, I. Rombouts, K.J.A. Jansens, L.J. Deleu, J.A. Delcour “Proteins of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), and quinoa (Chenopodium spp.): A food science and technology perspective”, Comprehensive Reviews Food Science and Food Safety. Vol 16, 39–58, nov 2017.

T, El-Adawy, E, Rahma, A. El-Bedawey, A. El-Beltagy, “Nutritional potential and functional properties of germinated mung bean, pea and lentil seeds”, Plant Foods Human Nutrition, vol, 58, 1-13, sep. 2003,

W. E., Andreas, C. Ching-Huan, Y. Miao-Rong, Y. Ray-Yu. “Nutritional composition of mungbean and soybean sprouts compared to their adult growth stage”. Food Chemistry, vol 237, 15–22, dic. 2017

H.P., Singh, S., Kaur, D.R., Batish, R.K., Kohli, “Caffeic acid inhibits in vitro rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) wilczek] hypocotyls by inducing oxidative stress”, Plant Growth Regulators, vol 57, 21-30, ene, 2009.

M. Montemurroa , E Pontonioa, M. Gobbettib, C. Giuseppe Rizzelloa, “Investigation of the nutritional, functional and technological effects of the sourdough fermentation of sprouted flours”, International Journal of Food Microbiology, in press, 2018

R.Y., Khattab, S.D., Arntfield, “Nutritional quality of legume seeds as affected by some physical treatments 2. Antinutritional factors”. LWT- Food Science and Technology, vol, 42, 1113–1118, jul, 2009.

K.J. Steadman, M.S. Burgoon, B.A. Lewis, S.E. Edwardson, R.L. Obendorf R. “Buckwheat seed milling fractions: Description, macronutrient composition and dietary fibre” Journal of cereal Science, vol 33, no 3, pp.271–278, may. 2001.

M. Schirmer, A. Höchstötter, M. Jekle, E. Arendt, T. Becker “Physicochemical and morphological characterization of different starches with variable amylose/amylopectin ratio”, Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 32, no. 1, 52–63, jul. 2013.

S.W. Horstmann, M.C.E. Belz, M. Heitmann, E. Zannini, E.K. Arendt “Fundamental study on the impact of gluten-free starches on the quality of gluten-free model breads”, Foods, vol 5, no.2, pp1-12, abr 2016.

R. Randhir, Y-T Lin, K Shetty. “Stimulation of phenolics, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in dark germinated mung bean sprouts in response to peptide and phytochemical elicitors”. Process Biochemical, ene. 2004, vol, 39: 637-646.

S. Wang, B. Shao, H. Fu, P. Rao. “Isolation of a thermo-stable legume chitinase and study on the antifungal activity”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 85 no.2, pp. 313–321, Jun. 2009.

D.J. Bowles. “Defense-related proteins in higher plants”, Annual Rev Biochemistry, vol, 59, nº 1, 873–907, 1990.

Nutritional Value. Mung beans, raw, sprouted, mature seeds. Copyright 2018 NutritionValue.org, dic, 2018. [Online]. Disponible en: https://www.nutritionvalue.org/