Reloj citoplasmatico y desarrollo embrionario temprano: un modelo con futuras aplicaciones medicas y comerciales.

Reloj citoplasmatico y desarrollo embrionario temprano: un modelo con futuras aplicaciones medicas y comerciales.

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Omar Camargo

Resumen

El ciclo meiotico en los mamiferos comienza en el ovario fetal ,prosigue hasta el estado de diplonete de la primera profase, y se detiene , poco antes del nacimiento en una fase similar a G2.La reiniciacion  de la meiosis, la cual ocurre inmediatamente antes de la ovulacion, representa la transicion entre las fases G2 y M del ciclo celular.  

Una ves ovulado y fertilizado el oocito es activado, fenomeno que le capacita para iniciar el clivage el cual consiste en rapidas alteraciones de los estados de interfase y de mitosis.Se ha sugerido que un "reloj ordenador" controla el clivage post-cigotico en virtud a que estas divisiones son relativamente rapidas , sincronicas y no dependen del crecimiento celular.Aunque varios componentes de este reloj se han descubierto , los elementos que determinan su ciclidad no han sido identificados .El reloj ,se caracteriza por la actividad del factor promotor de la fase M(FPM), una cinasa dependiente de ciclinas ,que cuando se activa induce la celula a la mitosis .De otro lado se ha hallado que aumentos periodicos de la concentracion de calcio libre citosolico([Ca++]i)contribuye a la regulacion de  los ciclos celulares . Aunque el grado de regulacion ejercido por dichas oscilaciones de [Ca++]i no se conoce con certeza , se ha sugerido que el mecanismo que las controla es un componente fundamental del gran reloj ordenador.                                                                                                                                                                                          

Aqui exploramos las posibles interacciones que pueden existir entre Ca++ y el FPM,como estas regulan los ciclos celulares  durante el desarrollo embrionario temprano (post-cigotico)] y que aplicaciones medicas  y comerciales se han derivado de su estudio .

Palabras Clave: ciclo celular, ciclinas, cinasas -fosfatasas, activación, desarrollo temprano.

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