Nueva metodología para la detección de fallas en rodamientos en motores de inducción trifásicos

A new methodology for detection of bearings faults in three-phase induction motor

Contenido principal del artículo

Carlos Cáceres-Amaya
Jorge Duarte-Forero
Guillermo Valencia-Ochoa

Resumen

Este estudio expone una metodología para la detección, clasificación y ubicación de fallas en rodamientos de bola, en la jaula y la pista exterior. Para este estudio se utilizó un motor de inducción trifásico, en el que se midieron las señales de tensión y corriente del estator. Calculando la distorsión armónica total y utilizando la Transformada de Stockwell, se obtuvieron diferentes características en las señales eléctricas que permitieron definir las condiciones de falla en el rodamiento, la clasificación del tipo de falla y la ubicación del rodamiento defectuoso (lado ventilador o lado carga). Calculando la diferencia entre la distorsión armónica total de la señal de corriente y voltaje, es posible identificar un valor de umbral de 0.004 que separa una condición de operación normal y una condición de falla. El uso de la Transformada de Stockwell y el algoritmo de puntuación de Fisher nos permite clasificar las condiciones de falla con una precisión promedio del 92.5%. La ubicación de un rodamiento con defectos en el lado de carga genera una mayor amplitud en la señal, en comparación con los ubicados en el lado del ventilador. Este comportamiento permite establecer un valor umbral de 1.6 para fallas de bola y 0.001 para fallas en la jaula y en la pista exterior. Por los resultados obtenidos, el algoritmo propuesto en el estudio se considera una herramienta con un alto grado de confiabilidad para el diagnóstico de rodamientos en motores de inducción.

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Detalles del artículo

Biografía del autor/a (VER)

Carlos Cáceres-Amaya, Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander

Ingeniero de Sistemas

Jorge Duarte-Forero, Universidad del Atlántico

Doctor en Ingeniería Mecánica

Guillermo Valencia-Ochoa, Universidad del Atlántico

Doctor en Ingeniería

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